The main component of rosin is the mixture of C20 monocarboxylic diterpenic resin acids
including the abietic-type acids and pymaric-type acid, and percentage of these resin acids
in the rosin is ca.
Some authors attribute the genotoxic effects mainly to resin acids
(abietic and dehydroabietic acid; Fernandez et al., 2007) and sterols (Lehtinen et al., 1999) contained in the kraft mill effluents.
The relative density, growth rate, and chemical composition of the extractives (fatty and resin acids
, nitrogen, and reducing sugar contents) were determined.
The normal products of wood include tannins, resin acids
. stillbenes, and lignin among other compounds.
Natural resin acids
present in rosin of Pinus spez., including isopimaric acid (1), mercusis acid (2), neoabietic acid (3), dehydroabietic acid (4), and podocarpic acid (8), as well as resin acid
derivatives [beta], 9 [alpha], 13 [alpha]-H-tetrahydroabietic acid (5), 8 [alpha], 9 [alpha], 13[alpha],-H-terahydroabietic acid (6), 13 [alpha],-H-[delta] (8) -dihydroabietic acid (7), maleopimaric acid (9), and fumaropimaric acid (10), were studied for their possible inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-Ea) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorabol-13-acetate (TPA).
In addition to lignin, the ethanol used to obtain it is recovered and recycled; furfural, acetic acid, valuable extractives (resin acids
, terpenes, fatty acids, phytosterols) are isolated; and the cellulose and hexose sugars derived from hemicellulose are subjected to enzymatic conversion/fermentation to fuel ethanol.
Examples include carrageenan from kelp, biodiesel from vegetable oils, and resin acids
from the "extractives" of trees.
Using the previously described laboratory scale reactors, single-stage UV degradation, single-stage biological degradation, and two-stage UV-biological degradation schemes were evaluated and compared for rate of degradation, degree of mineralization, and residual concentration of the target resin acids
. The results indicate that photolysis by either UV254 or broad band UV/vis radiation is a powerful degradation method for the target compounds and also is an effective pre-treatment method for resin acid
In alkaline conditions, such as in kraft pulping, the triglycerides are completely saponified, and the free fatty acids and resin acids
are dissolved, but sterols and some steryl esters and waxes do not form soluble soap and tend to deposit and cause pitch problems.
Composed mainly of cellulose, polyoses, and lignin, wood dust may contain a variety of nonpolar organic extractives (fatty acids, resin acids
, waxes, alcohols, terpenes, sterols, steryl esters, and glycerols), polar organic extractives (tannins, flavonoids, quinones, and lignans), and water-soluble extractives (carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins, and inorganic material) (20).
Spruce sawdust contained considerably lower amounts of fatty and resin acids
Many acetone soluble polar components, including oxidized resin acids
, also are important to pulp and papermaking and can be readily assayed using gas chromatography.