reporter gene


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Related to reporter gene: Marker gene

reporter gene

, reporter
A gene whose products are easily detected or measured. In biochemical research it is linked to a gene of interest and used to signal to researchers that the gene has been successfully inserted into a cell or chromosome.

reporter gene

a test GENE with a coding region whose PHENOTYPE can be easily detected. Ideally it should be possible to assay the phenotype quantitatively. The reporter gene may be fused immediately DOWNSTREAM of a regulatory region so that its expression (see GENE EXPRESSION is under the influence of that region. The extent and pattern of expression of the reporter gene construct, determined by assay of phenotype, can be used to analyse gene regulation.

gene

the unit of heredity most simply defined as a specific segment of DNA, usually in the order of 1000 nucleotides, that specifies a single polypeptide. Many phenotypic characteristics are determined by a single gene, while others are multigenic. Genes are specifically located in linear order along the single DNA molecule that makes up each chromosome. All eukaryotic cells contain a diploid (2n) set of chromosomes so that two copies of each gene, one derived from each parent, are present in each cell; the two copies often specify a different phenotype, i.e. the polypeptide will have a somewhat different amino acid composition. These alternative forms of gene, both within and between individuals, are called alleles. Genes determine the physical (structural genes), the biochemical (enzymes), physiological and behavioral characteristics of an animal.
The formation of gametes (sperm, ova) involves a process of meiosis, which allows crossing over between four pairs of chromosomes, two derived from each parent, which means that new forms of a particular chromosome are created. Gamete formation also results in cells (gametes) with a haploid (n) set of chromosomes that in fertilization creates a new individual, which is a recombinant of 2n chromosomes, half derived by way of the ovum from the mother and half via the spermatozoa from the father.
Changes in the nucleotide sequence of a gene, either by substitution of a different nucleotide or by deletion or insertion of other nucleotides, constitute mutations which add to the diversity of animal species by creating different alleles and can be used as a basis for genetic selection of different phenotypes. Some mutations, be they a single base change in a single gene or a major deletion, are lethal.

gene action
the way in which genes exert their effects on tissues or processes, e.g. by being dominant or recessive, or partially so, being absent, being sex-linked, being involved in chromosomal aberrations.
allelic g's
different forms of a particular gene usually situated at the same position (locus) in a pair of chromosomes.
gene amplification
see gene duplication (below).
gene bank
the collection of DNA sequences in a given genome. Called also gene library.
barring gene
responsible for the barred pattern on the feathers of Barred Plymouth Rock birds.
gene box
see box (4).
gene clone
see clone.
gene cluster
a group of related genes derived from a common ancestral gene, located closely together on the same chromosome. Called also multigene family.
complementary g's
two independent pairs of nonallelic genes, neither of which is functional without the other.
gene conversion
a non-reciprocal exchange of DNA elements during meiosis which results in a functional rearrangement of chromosomal DNA.
dhfr gene
dihydrofolate reductase gene; an enzyme required to maintain cellular concentrations of H2 folate for nucleotide biosynthesis, and which has been used as a 'selective marker'; cells lacking the enzyme only survive in media containing thymidine, glycine and purines; mutant cells (dhfr) transfected with DNA that is dhfr′ can be selectively grown in medium lacking these elements.
diversity (D) gene
genes located in diversity (D) segment; contribute to the hypervariable region of immunoglobulins.
dominant gene
one that produces an effect (the phenotype) in the organism regardless of the state of the corresponding allele. Examples of traits determined by dominant genes are short hair in cats and black coat color in dogs.
gene duplication
as a result of non-homologous recombination, a chromosome carries two or more copies of a gene.
gene expression
gene frequency
the proportion of the substances or animals in the group which carry a particular gene.
holandric g's
genes located on the Y chromosome and appearing only in male offspring.
immune response (Ir) g's
genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that govern the immune response to individual immunogens.
jumping gene
see mobile dna.
gene knockout
replacement of a normal gene with a mutant allele, as in gene knockout mice.
lethal gene
one whose presence brings about the death of the organism or permits survival only under certain conditions.
gene library
see gene bank (above).
gene locus
see locus.
mutant gene
one that has undergone a detectable mutation.
non-protein encoding gene
the final products of some genes are RNA molecules rather than proteins.
overlapping g's
when more than one mRNA is transcribed from the same DNA sequence; the mRNAs may be in the same reading frame but of different size or they may be in different reading frames.
gene pool
total of all genes possessed by all members of the population which are capable of reproducing during their lifetime.
gene probe
see probe (2).
recessive gene
one that produces an effect in the organism only when it is transmitted by both parents, i.e. only when the individual is homozygous.
regulator gene, repressor gene
one that synthesizes repressor, a substance which, through interaction with the operator gene, switches off the activity of the structural genes associated with it in the operon.
reporter gene
one that produces products which can be measured and therefore used as an indicator of whether a DNA construct has successfully been transferred.
sex-linked gene
one that is carried on a sex chromosome, especially an X chromosome.
gene splicing
structural gene
nucleotide sequences coding for proteins.
gene therapy
the insertion of functional genes into cells of the host in order to alter its phenotype, usually used to treat an inherited defect.
gene transcription
gene transfer
tumor suppressor g's
a class of genes that encode proteins that normally suppress cell division that when mutated allow cells to continue unrestricted cell division and may result in a tumor.
References in periodicals archive ?
2] Nonstandard abbreviations: TNF, tumor necrosis factor; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; CD, Crohn disease; ADA, antidrug antibody; mAb, monoclonal antibody; CHO, Chinese hamster ovary; CDR, complementarity determining region; PEG, polyethylene glycol; TNF-R2, TNF type 2 receptor; FDA, US Food and Drug Administration; FcRn, neonatal Fc receptor; HMSA, homogenous mobility shift assay; RGA, reporter gene assay.
To further investigate the specificity of angoline (1) for STAT3 signaling inhibition, the effects of angoline (1) on STAT1 and NF-[kappa]B signaling pathways were then examined by using a STAT1 luciferase reporter gene assay in HepG2 cells and an NF-[kappa]B luciferase reporter gene assay in 293 cells after the addition of IFN[gamma] and TNF[alpha], respectively.
Chlorpyrifos-methyl was inactive in all ToxCast HTS-E assays except for the Attagene ER[alpha] TRANS and CIS reporter gene assays, which resulted in the subsequent positive call.
donovani cell lines expressing firefly luciferase reporter gene (luc.
Use of a second reporter gene (anthocyanin) is an effective method of reducing the impact of variation between shots on the accuracy of estimation of promoter strength by bombardment of tissues as it enables an estimation of the effectiveness of each shot.
When the gene of interest is expressed, so is the reporter gene, which produces a protein that serves as an endogenous molecular imaging probe.
As a result, it has been shown that siRNAs directed toward an exogenous green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, which acts as a reporter gene, specifically suppressed GFP expression without significantly affecting the expression levels of ~36,000 human genes.
To determine R-cadherin function in zebrafish RGC development, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction and ligation techniques were used to generate a dominant negative construct (Rcad[DELTA]C) that encodes for the extracellular and transmembrane domains of R-cadherin with a reporter gene in place of the cytoplasmic domain.
Luminometers can measure many types of assays, ranging from reporter gene assays to immunoassays to enzyme assays.
We describe a method for transposon-mediated reporter gene mutagenesis which creates transcriptional fusions of S.
The machine also owed much, wrote longtime reporter Gene Powell, "to organized vice; to gang killings and gang coercion of businessmen; to padded registration lists; to commercialized prostitution; to the corruption of police departments and other law officials; to organized gambling - all of which made up Tom's 'practical business of politics.