He said that it is high time to create awareness among the masses on population and development issues and enhanced cooperation of all segments of society in the government's endeavor to achieve the goal of replacement level fertility
He said that it is high time to create awareness in masses on population and development issues and enhanced cooperation of all segments of society in government's endeavor to achieve the goal of replacement level fertility
Kerala was the first Indian state to achieve below replacement level fertility
in 1987, while India is yet to achieve this demographic milestone even during 2015-16 while Kerala's Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has further dipped to 1.6,"said Rajan.
For example, Kerala ranks on top in terms of overall performance but sees the least incremental change as it had already achieved a low level of Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR) and Under-five Mortality Rate (U5MR) and replacement level fertility
, leaving limited space for any further improvements.
These 145 districts have been identified based on total fertility rate and service delivery for immediate, special and accelerated efforts to reach the replacement level fertility
goals of 2.1 by 2025, the statement said.
Replacement level fertility
is the total fertility rate -- the average number of children born per woman -- at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next, without migration.
A below replacement level fertility
rate and a fall in the number of women of childbearing age influence declining birth rates in 2012-2030.
It is called Replacement Level Fertility
and the report argues that many countries have reached this level or are on their way to achieve it, except for Africa.
However, other than the demographic expediency and political acceptability of population stabilization, there appears to be little, if any, empirical or theoretical rationale for the widely cited UN projections to assume convergence to replacement level fertility
. Resting on the dubious assumption of convergence to replacement fertility, the weighty message to scholars, government officials and the general public that world population is expected to approach stabilization at 10 billion by the end of the century appears tenuous.
Noting that members of more privileged ethnic groups have achieved replacement level fertility
by combining traditional method use with abortion as a backup--largely because of the limited range of modern methods available and lack of counseling on how to use them effectively--the authors suggest that improved family planning services will be needed to complete Vietnam's fertility transition.
Indeed, the most recent data for Northern Ireland show an increase in the TPFR to 2.016, which is equivalent to replacement level fertility
Demonstrating an especially dramatic correlation, an Ethiopian woman with no education has 6.1 children on average, but an Ethiopian woman with secondary or higher education has just 2.0 children, slightly below replacement level fertility