Among these complications are renal artery
stenosis, renal artery
thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, arteriovenous fistula, and renal artery
Type II--Inferior segmental branch arises from the posterior division of renal artery
In one patient, during deployment the flow diverter, stent's proximal part protruded into the main renal artery
compromising the anterior branch.
Renal vein thrombosis and renal artery
occlusion usually result in graft loss, but fortunately are rare complications.
Reformatted coronal abdominal MRA images demonstrating the stenotic segment of the left renal artery
and abdominal aorta (arrows).
(2-3) A systematic review revealed only 14 cases of arterioenteric fistula from the renal artery
following previous grafting and surgery, however with a near 43% reported mortality, and highlights that the clinician must have a high degree of suspicion to pursue diagnosis and therapy rapidly if the patient is to survive.
Percutaneous renal artery
stent placement is considered a safe procedure with the risk of complications being 5-15%.3,4 Common complications include groin haematoma at the puncture site, branch vessel occlusion, and renal artery
We decided to use LDSITT for the occluded renal artery
branches because the patient was not eligible for percutaneous therapy.
After proximal and distal control was obtained, the saccular aneurysmal wall was resected and the renal artery
was repaired primarily.
Two large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), ASTRAL (Angioplasty and Stent for Renal Artery
Lesions) trial , and CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) trial  compared PTRA and conventional medication therapy regarding outcomes for BP lowering effects, renal protection (in ASTRAL), and onset of future cardiovascular events (in CORAL).
However, the reliability of catheter-based RDN is uncertain, because the renal sympathetic nerves are mainly distributed in the adventitial surface of the renal artery
Patient age, antero-posterior (AP) abdominal aortic diameter and longitudinal diameter (length) were quantitative variables while aneurysmal sac form, wall calcification, involvement of renal artery
and peri-aortic haematoma were qualitative variables.