Primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) post-kidney transplantation can occur in either the native kidney(s) or renal allograft
, although their occurrence is significantly rarer in the latter.
Similarly demographic data was collected from the renal allograft
recipient which included age, sex, occupation, chronic kidney disease duration, basic disease responsible for the Chronic kidney disease, any Arterio venous fistulae and if any failures (primary or secondary in the past and its management if any if done), any associated co morbidities, medication history, Frequency and duration of haemodialysis if any and its complications, any history of bone disease, any history of blood transfusion, any history of treatment with erythropoietin and its frequency, history of any immunizations were accounted for, any stigmata of Chronic kidney disease and Metabolic bone disease were examined and appropriately documented.
Lack of improvement in renal allograft
survival despite a marked decrease in acute rejection rates over the most recent era.
3a) and patent infrarenal IVC and bilateral iliac veins with some residual thrombus about the IVC filter and in the right lower extremity veins distal to the renal allograft
Noninvasive evaluation of renal allograft
fibrosis by transient elastographyda pilot study.
By the one-year follow-up assessment, seven patients (including two cases of none recovery AMR, one case of primary nonfunctioning, two case of renal artery stenosis, and two case of ureteral obstruction in transplanted kidney) in the development cohorts and four patients (two cases of none-recovery AMR, one case of transplanted kidney rupture, and one case of renal allograft
abscess) in the validation cohorts had developed allograft failure.
C4d-positive acute humoral renal allograft
rejection: effective treatment by immunoadsorption.
In the last decade, molecular techniques have been evaluated for the non-invasive diagnosis of renal allograft
dysfunction, mainly for the detection of acute rejection, with analyses performed in either peripheral blood or urine (7,9,10).
Cooper et al., "Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a renal allograft
associated with xanthogranulomatous diverticulitis: Report of the first case and review of the literature," Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol.
AKI is common in renal allograft
recipients  due to multiple risk factors including single kidney, use of calcineurin inhibitors, and increasing use of marginal donor kidneys, among others.
Luke, "Acute page kidney following renal allograft
biopsy: a complication requiring early recognition and treatment," American Journal of Transplantation, vol.
Though there are studies describing the benefits of early conversion to belatacept, few have evaluated the effects of late conversion and the potential impact of a maintenance immunosuppression regimen on patients experiencing renal allograft
function decline with long-term CNI use and toxicity [6-8].