For those with chronic back pain, the suggestions include exercise, rehabilitation, acupuncture, tai chi, yoga, progressive relaxation, cognitive
behavioural therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction.
Moreover, it seems that the techniques generally more used (psychoeducation, relaxation, cognitive
restructuring techniques and techniques for controlling the internal dialogue) that are applied uniformly in different ADs might suggest similar underlying processes and common strategies treatment for different diagnoses, which can make it more relevant to focus on the principles of treatment rather than on specific techniques (Carey, 2011).
They provide instructions for arts and crafts, music, drama, reminiscence, movement and relaxation, cognitive
, and life skills activities like gardening, preparing food, and washing and dressing.
The cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group received 10 sessions of training in relaxation, cognitive
restructuring, and eliminating negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes.
The importance of regular exercise for lowering heart rate and reducing stress are examined; progressive relaxation, cognitive
thinking, visualization and imagery techniques also are reviewed.
The treatment model described is a combined cognitive behavioral therapy approach that employs relaxation, cognitive
, and communication skills interventions.
Individuals randomly received a tricyclic antidepressant (amitriptyline hydrochloride, up to 100 mg/day, or nortriptyline hydrochloride, up to 75 mg/day) medication (n = 53), a placebo (n = 48), stress management (eg, relaxation, cognitive
coping) therapy (three sessions and two telephone contacts) plus a placebo (n = 49), or stress management therapy plus an antidepressant medication (n = 53).