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In addition, a not yet characterized regulatory mutation as well as a deletion of 5 bp in exon 2 and a missense mutation in exon 4 was identified as the causes of the black recessive nonagouti ([A.sup.a]) allele [18, 19, 21].
The C-to-T regulatory mutation was examined in 22 patients with gestational diabetes with blood catalase activity below the lower limit of the reference interval (80.3 MU/L) and in the 38 nonpregnant controls.
This resistance can be secondary to 2 distinct pathways: passive, which involves alterations of outer membrane proteins, the porins, which decrease the rate of entry of antimicrobial drugs into the bacteria by diminution of the pore size (25), and active, which involves overexpression of an indigenous efflux pump that exports the antimicrobial drug outside the cell after a regulatory mutation (26).
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