Acid reflux was defined as a reflux episode
where the oesophageal pH decreases to <4, or that occurs when the oesophageal pH is <4.
This test allows one to quantify the degree of gastroesophageal reflux in a near-physiological setting by measuring the frequency and duration of acid exposure to the esophageal mucosa and the length of time required to clear the esophagus of acid following a reflux episode
. Ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring could provide awfully important information about whether there exists pathological reflux, which plays a definitive role in the final diagnosis.
Likewise, participant (3) had an abnormal RSI total score of 21 but only had one mild reflux episode
, lasting less than 1 minute.
The most important GERD symptom from the dental perspective is regurgitation, resulting in transportation of acidic gastric juices in the mouth following a reflux episode
We theorized that while asleep, Caleb experienced a reflux episode
that brought stomach contents into his throat, which, combined with the thick mucus and his already obstructed airway, led to complete blockage and respiratory arrest.
We have established four criteria that must be met in order for an event to be defined as a pharyngeal reflux episode
This is the mean time from the beginning of the reflux episode
to the moment when the pH returns to over 4, expressed as minutes.
After a reflux episode
, esophageal clearance is primarily achieved by secondary peristalsis, which removes around 90% of the reflux and is elicited by stretch receptors in the esophageal lining (volume clearance); however, a neutral esophageal pH is restored only after a voluntary swallow elicited by an esophagosalivary reflex mediated through the vagal afferents and delivery of salivary bicarbonate (chemical clearance) .
The association between cough and reflux was judged positive if two criteria were met: a reflux episode
preceded coughing by 5 minutes or less, which was called symptom index (SI) positive, and the symptom association probability was greater than 95%.
As a result, a reflux episode
that occurs when gastric contents are at a pH >4 will not have a caustic effect on the esophagus.
But during 9 months of follow-up of 45 patients with supine GERD, 92 with upright GERD, and 88 with bipositional GERD, no differences developed in the percentage of time pH was below 4, the number of reflux episodes
, the number of reflux episodes
lasting longer than 5 minutes, the longest reflux episode
, and Johnson-DeMeester scores (Arch.
Moreover, short reflux episodes
cannot be recorded due to low sampling rate.