As James states, there is no difference, from the point of view of the outside observer, between voluntary and reflex movements
. The physiologist can discover that both depend upon the nervous system, and he may find that the movements which we call voluntary depend upon higher centres in the brain than those that are reflex.
Complementary to this fundamental contribution, on 2 July 1903 in a lecture before the French Society of Neurology, Babinski discussed the reflex movement
of the other toes 'spreading out like a fan' (according to Dupre) following extension of the big toe in the case of a syndrome affecting the pyramidal tract.
In addition to brain function monitoring, checking for clinical signs such as reflex movement
and using conventional monitoring systems like blood pressure and ECG are recommended.
It is commonly believed that headless chickens run because many of the birds' reflex movements
are controlled by their brain stems, not their brains - meaning a chicken will sometimes continue to race about.
Into the context, some assert that on one hand physicians should be aware of "reflex movements
that can occur in braindead patients" (37:589) so that the diagnosis of brain death is not delayed or disputed and on the other hand that "brain death should be undertaken with circumspection, particularly when related to organ transplantation" (37:590).
Ocular deviation and reflex movements
of the eyes in response to head movement can be used to assess damage to the pons (a part of the brainstem that communicates between brain and spinal cord and also controls many autonomic functions), although these are also affected by cortical damage.
A series of modules comprising a wealth of graded exercises gradually increase the requisite degree of dexterity or the reflex movements
that need to be learnt, with a steady learning curve.
You will want to choose a switch site that will not have a negative effect on the way a joint or muscle works, or use reflex movements
that the therapist is trying to minimize.