By normal distribution curve, the reference values
were established, and mean+-2 SD were taken as significant.
In 1991, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) pointed out that older people were generally underrepresented in published spirometric reference values
. In 2012, the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) analyzed the reference equations from 33 countries and regions including 97,759 reference participants.
However, some of the studies reported difference among GLI reference range and the measured range for that particular region12,13,25 while most of the studies didn't compare their reference values
. So the objective of this study was to review the reference ranges among Asian children and adolescents and to compare them with the study done by GLI team.
are 3.8 to 5.2 trillion cells per liter of blood for women and 4.5 to 6.0 trillion cells per liter of blood for men.
After obtaining parental informed consent, the sample included all premature children who attended those institutions, meeting the following criteria: (1) preterm born children with birth weight noninferior to 1,500Kg and minimal gestational age of 28 weeks, in order to avoid congenital anomalies on the development (29-31), (2) between the 4;00 and the 5;05 years old, so that the linguistic performance could be compared with the available reference values
for children in that age group (32), (3) monolinguals of European Portuguese, (4) with no present or previous Speech Therapy treatment and (5) without motor, mental and/or sensory disorders diagnosed that could affect the language development.
Whilst the [PI.sub.MAX] values in the OSA group were reduced compared with the [PI.sub.MAX] reference values
(77 (35-124) cm[H.sub.2]O versus 92.9 (62.3-100.0) cm[H.sub.2]O, p = 0.030), there was no difference between the non-OSA group and the respective [PI.sub.MAX] reference values
(84 (33-122) cm[H.sub.2]O versus 94.2 (67.7-102.4) cm[H.sub.2]O, p = 0.20) (see Figure 1).
The reticulocyte count was 3.2% (reference values
: 0.5-2.5%), erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 3mm/h (reference values
: 2-37), Creactive protein was 9 mg/L (reference values
: 0-5), and hemoglobin electrophoresis was normal.
Results are given graphically as deviations of experimentally obtained results of CT scanning from reference values
and as deviations of results from simulation obtained scanned model and measured results from reference values
In this study, we established reference values
for jitter in voluntary activated periocular muscles with a disposable 37-mm CNE, which is the most conventional and most common used in routine electrodiagnosis.
Lupton will discuss bioactives and nutrient reference values
(NRVs), known in the U.S.
The statement added this follows the adoption of reference values
on sodium and saturated fats, and is part of the Codex's efforts to take into consideration the increasing public health problems of obesity and NCDs.
Laboratory tests showed reference values
for hemoglobin concentration; platelet count; and levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, and antinuclear and anti-citrulline peptide antibodies.