A second window is also available for integration of a reference electrode
into the stick, although the experiments reported in this paper still rely on an external glass reference electrode
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed using a VersaSTAT 3 potentiostat/galvanostat (AMETEK PAR, USA) and a conventional three-electrode system comprising a composite-coated glassy carbon (diameter, 3.0 mm) working electrode, a platinum wire counter electrode, and an Ag/AgCl (saturated KCl) reference electrode
. Screen-printed electrode with a 2.0 mm (diameter) working electrode, Ag/AgCl ink reference electrode
, and carbon paste counter electrode was fabricated with a screen-printer produced by Hyochang Machinery Co., Ltd.
The experiment is carried out using two systems: the first is based on a 100 [cm.sup.2] unit cell laboratory V-RFB attached to a pair of reference electrodes
, and the second is based on a 25 [cm.sup.2] unit cell laboratory unit V-RFB attached to a combination of reference and working electrodes as shown in Fig.
A sample electrode (working electrode), a reference electrode
, and a counter electrode are immersed in an electrolyte solution (for instance, 5% NaCl in water).
The reference electrode
is placed in a well protected spot outside the cochlea.
Changes in the liquid junction potential of the potentiometric reference electrode
are avoided by renewal of the bridge electrolyte solution after each measurement.
The recording electrode was placed over the belly of abductor digiti muscle and the reference electrode
distal to the active electrode.
Changes in potential were detected by a platinum electrode (model: 213; Shanghai precision scientific instrument Co., Ltd, China) as working electrode and a saturated calomel electrode (model: 217; Shanghai precision scientific instrument Co., Ltd, China) as reference electrode
. Potentials (E) of the electrode as a function of time (t) were recorded by a electrochemical workstation (model: CHI620E; Shanghai Chenhua Instruments Co., Ltd,China) to obtain kinetic curves (E-t) of the oscillation reaction.
A commercial Ag/AgCl ECG electrode (made in 3M Group) was used as a reference electrode
Saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and platinum electrode were used as the reference electrode
and the counter electrode.
To enable ISFET to become functional, electrolyte and a reference electrode
Three-electrode configuration was used including Ag/AgCl, Cl-1 as reference electrode
and platinum spiral as auxiliary electrode, Carbon and titanium electrodes were used as working electrode.