The Nathan/Van Konynenburg studies showed the following in plasma from ME/CFS patients: Initial levels before therapy was initiated showed all four reduced folates studied, including 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF); tetrahydrofolate and folinic acid were all low in CFS patients; S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) was modestly low (circa 10%); reduced glutathione
(GSH) was low; and GSH/GSSG (oxidized glutathione) was low.
Bovine serum albumin (BSA), bromophenol blue, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), eosin, glycerol, hematoxylin, hex-adecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB), 2-mercaptoethanol, naphthylenediamide dihydrochloride, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), oxidized glutathione, phosphoric acid, reduced glutathione
, sodium acetate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium nitrite, sulfanilamide, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), triethanolamine, Tris-HCI, Tween 20, and 2-vinylpyridine were purchased from Sigma Chemical (St.
Table II.- Effect of cadmium and selenium on levels of lipid peroxides (MDA), hydroperoxides (LHP), reduced glutathione
(GSH), catalase (CAT) and DNA fragmentation in liver of different treatment groups of male sprague-dawley rats.
Curcumin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) has been shown to significantly decrease lipid peroxidation, and increase reduced glutathione
levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in lead-induced neurotoxicity in rats (Shukla et al.
Caption: Figure 6: The effect of amiodarone on reduced glutathione
(GSH) level in rat lung homogenate.
Of most interest in testing the GD-MCB hypothesis would be the levels of reduced glutathione
inside the cells that are most closely associated with the symptoms of CFS, particularly those of the skeletal muscles, the heart muscle, the brain and nervous system, the immune system, and glands that secrete hormones found to be deficient in CFS.
GPX catalyzes the oxidation of reduced glutathione
(GSH) by cumene hydroperoxide.
Armstrong, "Reduced glutathione
and glutathione disulfide," Methods in Molecular Biology, vol.
, also known as glutathione or GSH, is found in all living systems.(1) Lowered GSH tissue levels have been observed in several disease conditions.(2) The restoration of cell GSH levels in a number of these conditions has proved to be beneficial.
Oxidative stress was measured in terms of free radicals (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide), enzymatic antioxidant (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and non enzymatic antioxidant (total thiol, reduced glutathione
Antioxidant status was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ascorbic acid concentration (FRASC), malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione
levels in whole brain homogenates.
The concentration of reduced glutathione
(GSH)  is a limiting factor in this enzymatic process, which requires the maintenance of a high reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio as achieved by glutathione reductase.