These models could have significant implications in management practices when used in combination with known areas of red spruce
and Fraser fir.
Intense fires often followed the logging operations in the high elevation red spruce
After microscopic observation of anatomical characteristics, 70 of these samples were determined to be red spruce
Poplar became lumber; chestnut and hemlock produced tannin used in tanning; oak, maple, and cherry were crafted into furniture and flooring; and red spruce
was pulped into paper.
The cover photo on the October, 1999 issue of BioScience was of a dead red spruce
tree on the top of Vermont's Mt.
The resulting sudden increase in exposure to wind and ice storms ("thinning shock") may be partially responsible for red spruce
mortality reported at some sites (Zedaker et al., 1988; Nicholas and Zedaker, 1989; Nicholas et al., 1992a; Busing and Pauley, 1994).
branches are significantly longer than white spruce (Morse 1976), and appear to have more acute needle angles with respect to the branch, shorter needles, and greater needle density.
One notable feature of coastal forests is the minor presence of red spruce
, which is otherwise common throughout the Maritimes.
The highlands, which are cool and moist, once supported extensive stands of old-growth red spruce
, while the dry, southwest-facing lowland slopes and ridges are preferred by fire-loving tree species such as oaks and pines.
Young balsam fir and red spruce
trees are growing under the mature birch--a patient and continually unfolding response to the changes on the landscape.
President Aquino planted a red spruce
, commonly used for Christmas tree, on the grounds of Rideau Hall just a few meters away from the maple tree planted by the late President Corazon Aquino in 1989 to mark the start of his three-day state visit to Canada.
After the courtesy call, Aquino and Johnston emerged from the Rideau Hall and walked down the main drive to the wooded area, where Aquino shoveled soil onto a Red Spruce
tree beside a taller Red Maple planted by his mother on Nov.