recombinant DNA technology


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recombinant

 [re-kom´bĭ-nant]
1. the new entity (e.g., gene, protein, cell, individual) that results from genetic recombination.
2. pertaining or relating to such an entity.
recombinant DNA technology the process of taking a gene from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another; called also gene splicing. One commonly used technique involves the insertion of a new fragment of DNA that codes for a specific protein such as human insulin into a bacterium such as Escherichia coli. The gene is first inserted into a plasmid, a self-replicating ring of DNA involved in the transfer of genes between bacteria. The plasmid is cut at a specific site by using a special cutting enzyme called a restriction endonuclease. The same procedure is used to cut out a segment of DNA from another organism, for example, the gene for human insulin. This fragment of insulin DNA is inserted into the plasmid and then sealed into place by an annealing enzyme. The altered plasmid is then taken up by bacterium and incorporated into the genome. When the bacterial cells divide they pass on the new information to the next generation. This produces clones of bacteria that produce large quantities of the new protein, in this example, insulin.



This process has had great impact in the field of medicine. It has revolutionized the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, where it is used to manufacture a variety of proteins used in the treatment of disease, including hormones, vaccines, and interferons.

recombinant DNA technology

Molecular biology The chopping of DNA and moving the pieces, permitting direct examination of the human genome, and identifying the genetic components of various disorders; RDT is also used to develop diagnostic tests, drugs and biologicals for treating disease; the constellation of techniques that comprise 'genetic engineering', in which a gene producing a protein of interest from one organism is spliced into the genome of another organism–eg, a phage DNA integrated into a plasmid is inserted into a 'carrier' bacterium. See Genetic engineering, pBR322, PCR.

recombinant DNA technology (rDNA technology)

all the techniques involved in the construction and manipulation of RECOMBINANT DNA MOLECULES (as in GENETIC ENGINEERING), for the subsequent use and study of such molecules.

recombinant

1. the new cell or individual that derives some of its genetic material from one parent and some from another, genetically different parent.
2. pertaining or relating to such cells or individuals.

recombinant DNA technology
a mixture of technologies developed in the 1970s that include (a) specific cleavage of DNA by restriction endonucleases; (b) nucleic acid hybridization which makes it possible to identify specific sequences of DNA or RNA; (c) DNA cloning whereby a specific DNA fragment is integrated (spliced) into a rapidly replicating, high yielding genetic element (plasmid or virus) so that it can be amplified in bacteria or yeast; (d) DNA sequencing of the nucleotides in a cloned DNA fragment.
References in periodicals archive ?
Advantages of recombinant DNA technology in veterinary vaccinology DNA vaccines and cold chain requirement
The first miracle of recombinant DNA technology was the production of Human insulin.
Consider, too, that the use of recombinant DNA technology is not resource-intensive--quite the opposite: Little new investment is required; the UN must simply adopt a science-based, less onerous approach to regulation--in other words, to get out of the way of plant breeders and farmers.
At the heart of the problem is the fact that during the past two decades, regulators in the United States and many other countries have created a series of rules specific for products made with recombinant DNA technology.
Back then, the company had no products, no warehouses, no laboratories--merely a handful of investors willing to bet that the fledgling firm could turn ideas into real drugs using recombinant DNA technology.
Mapping of the human genome coupled with available recombinant DNA technology
6,331,415 relating to fundamental methods and compositions used to produce antibodies by recombinant DNA technology.
Gaithersburg, MD; 301-527-4321), utilize methods of recombinant DNA technology in the production of their antibody-based products.
As an environmental historian, Yudell is interested in looking at prior models of national action in the science, technology, and environmental arenas, for example regulations in the nuclear power industry or policy regarding recombinant DNA technology.
Herbert Wayne Boyer (1936 -) and Stanley Norman Cohen (1935 -) -- The molecular scientists who developed genetic engineering, formally known as recombinant DNA technology.
Somatic cell gene therapy, as it is called, is an application of recombinant DNA technology.
Using recombinant DNA technology, researchers are altering the genes that encode hemoglobin and then putting those genes into Escherichia coli bacteria, which then produce modified molecules.

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