recombinant DNA technology


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recombinant

 [re-kom´bĭ-nant]
1. the new entity (e.g., gene, protein, cell, individual) that results from genetic recombination.
2. pertaining or relating to such an entity.
recombinant DNA technology the process of taking a gene from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another; called also gene splicing. One commonly used technique involves the insertion of a new fragment of DNA that codes for a specific protein such as human insulin into a bacterium such as Escherichia coli. The gene is first inserted into a plasmid, a self-replicating ring of DNA involved in the transfer of genes between bacteria. The plasmid is cut at a specific site by using a special cutting enzyme called a restriction endonuclease. The same procedure is used to cut out a segment of DNA from another organism, for example, the gene for human insulin. This fragment of insulin DNA is inserted into the plasmid and then sealed into place by an annealing enzyme. The altered plasmid is then taken up by bacterium and incorporated into the genome. When the bacterial cells divide they pass on the new information to the next generation. This produces clones of bacteria that produce large quantities of the new protein, in this example, insulin.



This process has had great impact in the field of medicine. It has revolutionized the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, where it is used to manufacture a variety of proteins used in the treatment of disease, including hormones, vaccines, and interferons.

recombinant DNA technology

Molecular biology The chopping of DNA and moving the pieces, permitting direct examination of the human genome, and identifying the genetic components of various disorders; RDT is also used to develop diagnostic tests, drugs and biologicals for treating disease; the constellation of techniques that comprise 'genetic engineering', in which a gene producing a protein of interest from one organism is spliced into the genome of another organism–eg, a phage DNA integrated into a plasmid is inserted into a 'carrier' bacterium. See Genetic engineering, pBR322, PCR.

recombinant DNA technology (rDNA technology)

all the techniques involved in the construction and manipulation of RECOMBINANT DNA MOLECULES (as in GENETIC ENGINEERING), for the subsequent use and study of such molecules.

recombinant

1. the new cell or individual that derives some of its genetic material from one parent and some from another, genetically different parent.
2. pertaining or relating to such cells or individuals.

recombinant DNA technology
a mixture of technologies developed in the 1970s that include (a) specific cleavage of DNA by restriction endonucleases; (b) nucleic acid hybridization which makes it possible to identify specific sequences of DNA or RNA; (c) DNA cloning whereby a specific DNA fragment is integrated (spliced) into a rapidly replicating, high yielding genetic element (plasmid or virus) so that it can be amplified in bacteria or yeast; (d) DNA sequencing of the nucleotides in a cloned DNA fragment.
References in periodicals archive ?
The company doesn't try to justify its high price on the basis of manufacturing costs; the recombinant DNA technology used to make Epogen is commonplace.
This patent, which has claims for the co-expression of antibody heavy and light chains, covers a principal way that therapeutic and diagnostic antibodies are made by biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and others using recombinant DNA technology.
Both the classroom and laboratory portions of this course in recombinant DNA technology are designed to promote contextual, collaborative, inquiry-based learning of science.
Ideally, the efficiencies of recombinant DNA technology will diminish the need for such pricing.
a vocal critic of recombinant DNA technology, says he worries that reports like Rudman's may inadvertently boost illegal use of the synthetic hormone, which is already abused by athletes and bodybuilders.
New technologies like recombinant DNA technology, protein sequencing, protein electrophoresis, and western blotting are also expected to have a positive impact on the market.
Significant development in recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering is also expected to accelerate the rate of HIV vaccine development.
In fact, recombinant DNA technology may significantly reduce the costs of long-term maintenance therapy either through the development of recombinant substitutes or through specific gene therapy.
The researchers used recombinant DNA technology to change a specific amino acid in a protein that forms part of the "reaction center" where photosynthesis begins in bacteria.
Rapid advances in a collection of techniques referred to as gene technology, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning have pushed molecular biology to the forefront of the biological sciences.
Progress in recombinant DNA technology is the basis of development of peptide vaccine without which current progress has not been achieved by pharmaceutical companies.
of Waterloo, Canada) present nine papers discussing horticultural applications of plant genetic engineering, the role of microorganisms in recombinant DNA technology and synthetic biology, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, mycorrhizal symbiosis, application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the production of fruits and ornamental crops, molecular biology of and advances in the development of baculoviruses as biological pest control agents, natural antimicrobials to improve storage and shelf life of horticultural and agricultural products, and mycotoxins in fruits and fruit-derived products.

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