Limitation of our study include convenience sampling method, selection bias and significant recall bias
. Future studies should be done with keeping in mind our limitations and should incorporate questions about education level, income and oral hygiene practices.
"Most notably, the results are subject to recall bias
and participants defined the nature of an adverse laser event."
could have led to an overestimation of the association between concussion and suicide risk, since suicide attempts may affect reporting of concussion history, they said.
The findings demonstrate how objective digital data can be used to more accurately measure and assess asthma control, compared to patient-reported data that depends on patient recall and can be skewed by recall bias
and health care provider interpretation of this data.
Then there's the issue of recall bias
and the question as to whether oral cannabinoids equate to the plant-derived forms of medical marijuana that patients obtain from their local dispensaries.
One was that maternal Tdap vaccination and information on ASD both were derived from EHRs and therefore not subject to recall bias
. The study also included children diagnosed with ASD from age 1 year onward, reflecting the latest evidence on screening and diagnosis of autism.
They also noted potential limitations in the study: the WHI cohort's low number of strokes in follow-up, lack of classification of stroke, recall bias
due to the women self-reporting strokes, average age at baseline, and lack of data on pregnancy.
Among the study's problems: It was based on dietary recall and thus subject to recall bias
Since the foods could not be quantified due to recall bias
, the total caloric intake of patients could not be estimated in the results and compared with the required standards.
In contrast, despite possible recall bias
in our study, seroprevalence was higher for patients who reported fever and GI symptoms (i.e., SFTS symptoms) during the previous 3 years.
The authors cautioned that the study's use of self-reported survey data may have introduced information and recall bias
However, there remained the potential for volunteer bias and recall bias
. In addition, weight gain carries social stigma, which could have influence the self-reported results.