At issue in such cases is not the mathematics of probability and rationality but a normative question about how to define the affected and targeted classes.
Imagine the Department of Agriculture being required to produce statistical evidence about the relative number of deserving and abusing food stamp recipients as a percentage of those who live in households with unrelated persons in order to demonstrate the statute's rationality. The administrative cost of detecting abusers was itself the government's justification for the provision; it would approach irony to require it to do so in order to defend the constitutionality of the statute at the insistence of even a single objector willing to litigate.
In "Rationality in Science," chapter 13 of Rationality in Economics, Smith tackles Hayek's peremptory dismissal of laboratory experiments.
For Smith, the achievement of efficiency in the laboratory is evidence of ecological rationality. Moreover, because efficiency is a necessary condition for market order to be normatively desirable, the discovery of efficiency in laboratory experiments is normatively significant.
The traditional and highly deferential approach, under the constitutional law of due process, equated rationality
review of agency decisionmaking with rational-basis review of legislation.
In my view, the most promising theory of temporally extended practical rationality
is Michael Bratman's planning theory, which relies on the capacity of prior intentions to control current actions.
Indeed, if it were to be the case that they did not examine the reasons, they would not be able to decide whether the action, desire, or belief in question is rational or not; and, even if they claimed to have determined rationality
on some other grounds, their decision would be arbitrary; or that they could be said not to be really interested in rationality
Recent proposals seem to offer a way out for factualist reasons-based accounts of rationality
, in the face of the challenge posed by rational actions relying on false beliefs.
"We found that those who took part in the education intervention had higher scores of economic rationality
, suggesting that education is a tool for enhancing an individual's economic decision-making quality," added Kim.
Cases of epistemic akrasia, however, also raise worries concerning doxastic rationality
. Doxastic rationality
is traditionally thought of as propositional rationality
plus basing: an attitude is doxastically rational for an agent if and only if the agent has sufficient evidence to hold the attitude and she holds the attitude based on the evidence that makes it rational for her to hold it.
Nevertheless, since the bellicose appropriation of the bellicose version of the pre-classical cunning rationality
seriously limits the influence of prudence in a prince's political reasoning, we wonder if Machiavellian appropriation of the pre-classical cunning rationality
does not avoid the prince's fall into the hubris of violence.
Economic analysis and rational choice have made significant inroads into the study of international law and institutions in the last decade, relying upon standard assumptions of perfect rationality
of states and decisionmakers.