rationalism


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Related to rationalism: empiricism

rationalism

A general term for the group of philosophic schools that reject received or authoritarian wisdom and dogmatic religion and hold that knowledge is to be obtained only from observation and the application of logic to data so derived. Rationalism does not necessarily exclude religious beliefs, but tends to do so.
References in periodicals archive ?
But if he is not first and foremost an epistemologist, it cannot be that Schepers conceives Leibniz's strong rationalism in terms of the sources of knowledge, in terms of the debate between those who hold that knowledge is built on innate ideas, on the one hand, and on the other those who hold that all knowledge derives from experience.
The dominant model of moral cognition has so far been traditional rationalism. In line with this rationalistic tradition Robert Audi (2006) first defines reasoning as an inferential process that proceeds from one set of propositions to another by means of deductive or (broadly) inductive steps and he defines judgment as a result of this process.
In its most general terms, the nineteenth-century rapprochement of legal rationalism and historicism started in the first half of the nineteenth century and assumed features attractive simultaneously to common prudential understandings and to high jurisprudence.
IN A PIVOTAL ESSAY ON THE FATE OF RAtionalism in Oakeshott's Thought" (Penn State) the late Kenneth Minogue, a longtime colleague at the London School of Economics, contrasts Oakeshott's "philosophical vocation" with his "holiday excursions into condemnation," among which Minogue numbers the 1947 critique.
Adeptly blending philosophy, history, and politics, Bennett demonstrates how the philosophical debate between empiricism and rationalism is thematized in four major works of modern drama: Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), Luigi Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921), Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot (1953), and Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woof (1962).
His topics include the Qur'anic background of rationalism in early Islam, the encounter of Islamic rationalism with Greek culture, the autonomy of philosophy in Islam, the assimilation of Islamic philosophical thought and dissociation in the Latin Middle Ages, and the manifestation of Islamic thought in an intertwined world.
As the editors acknowledge, steps have been taken of late to explore more contextual, more varied approaches to philosophy in the early modern period and in particular to that strand in early modern philosophy known as rationalism. New readings in this spirit have been provided for individual rationalists, "but the movement as a whole has yet to be treated in keeping with the recent turn in history-of-philosophy scholarship toward greater sensitivity for historical contexts and toward considering the full range of intellectual concerns of past thinkers in order to understand their philosophical projects" (3).
NNA - 4/7/2012 - ASSAFIR: Berri on his position and "Hezbollah" embarrassed Mikati for rationalism and Jumblatt criticizes absurd "Intifada" Aoun: improving conditions or disolution of partnership?
Popper does not use "rationalism" as a traditional philosophical term in the sense of continental intellectualism opposing to British empiricism.
finds a characteristic pattern in which individual Islamic disciplines came to be dominated by various forms of Scholastic rationalism and then were challenged by critics advocating a literalist return to the sources.