Neurofibromin is a tumor suppressor that suppresses products of ras proto-oncogenes
. When it is absent, tumor progression may occur.
The RAS proto-oncogenes
(ERAS, KRAS, and NRAS) encode HRAS, KRAS 4A, KRAS 4B, and NRAS, 4 distinct but closely related and highly homologous proteins.
The conversion of normal RAS proto-oncogenes
, specifically K-RAS, to activated oncogenes is usually accomplished by point mutations involving the 12th and occasionally the 13th and 61st codons on chromosome 12.
Simple and sensitive detection of mutations in the ras proto-oncogenes
using PNA-mediated PCR clamping.
Activating mutations in the ras proto-oncogenes
are among the most commonly found alterations in cutaneous melanoma, the most fatal of skin cancers.