Those containing calcium oxalate raphide
(a needle-shaped crystal of the chemical) can injure the skin and mucous membranes and cause irritation, such as numbness and burning sensation of the tongue, mouth and lips, and swelling of the tongue or lips.
2004); druses may be used to identify Genipa americana (Erbano & Duarte, 2010) and raphides
in leaf mesophyll and cortical parenchyma of petiole were observed in Palicourea longepedunculata (Pereira et al.
1992) found that starch granules from various plant species could be differentiated based on their morphological attributes (including size, overall shape and the appearance of any facets) and the co-presence or absence of raphides
Fragmentation and degradation exacerbates the problem of raphide
epidermal cell shape, stomatal type, and raphide
type--may be hierarchically shallow considered by themselves.
Idioblasts containing raphides
are restricted to the cortex in S.
Idioblasts with raphides
in the storage parenchyma and chlorenchyma.
The precise assignation of Epilobium species was based on tri-chome and raphides
morphology (Krajsek et al.
2001) and the Cannaceae, Costaceae, Marantaceae and Zingiberaceae families would represent a unique clade, based on characters such as reduction of androecia to an only functional stamen, large and conspicuous staminodia, seeds with perisperm, absence of raphides
in parenchymatic tissues and entire, firm and not torn leaves (Judd et al.
What does it do: Friar's Cowl, like most members of the Aracaceae, contains Calcium oxalates, known as raphides
, which are tiny, needle like crystals that cause severe irritation on contact with the eyes and mucous membranes, and in some cases where the juice has been ingested will cause the tongue to swell dramatically, that can in rare cases, lead to suffocation.
Starch granules and raphides
identified as possibly from the aroid Colocasia esculenta (taro) have been found on the surfaces of undecorated Lapita potsherds from Anir, New Ireland (Crowther 2005).
Crystalline inclusions in leaf tissue: (0) absent; (1) sandy; (2) druses; (3) raphides
, as well as other forms; (4) framboids.