Crowther A (2005) Re-viewing raphides
: issues with the identification and interpretation of calcium oxalate crystals in microfossil assemblages.
(1992) found that starch granules from various plant species could be differentiated based on their morphological attributes (including size, overall shape and the appearance of any facets) and the co-presence or absence of raphides
, which are needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals, are common in many higher plants but are particularly abundant in the Araceae family of aroids (Sakai 1979; Sakai and Hanson 1974).
This included spherical to sub-spherical starch grains, calcium oxylate crystals (raphides
and druses), and xylem vessels with helical walls (Fig.
Easily distinguished character states--e.g., epidermal cell shape, stomatal type, and raphide
type--may be hierarchically shallow considered by themselves.
They include crystal sand, raphides
, druses and styloids.
A--Aligned colleters several in the stipules base; B--Three colleter aligned (C); D--Detail of stipular colleter (C); E--Dry Secretion (SE) in stipules (S); E--Stipule idioblast with raphides
(R) on stipule; F--Raphides on stipule with (R).
3h) indicates the occurrence of what are probably tapetal raphides
, which also are known from other commelinaceous genera and several other related families (Hardy & Stevenson, 2000a, b; Hardy et al., 2000, 2004; Prychid et al., 2003).
goyazana from other species of the genus based on the stomata; mesophyll; sclerenchyma sheaths shared by mid-vein vascular bundles; the occurrence of idioblasts and raphides
; and the presence of starch and tannin in the leaf blade.
Did Bobo nibble on the leaves of houseplants that contain calcium oxalate crystals (druses or raphides
) and secondary metabolites that may have done him in?
[6.] Sefa-Dedeh S and SE Kofi-Agyir Starch structure and some properties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta) starch and raphides
. Food Chemistry.