Use of a running wheel for 6 weeks increased the expression of the mRNA for 5-HT1A, an autoreceptor that inhibits the synthesis and release of 5-HT, in the raphe
(90); six weeks of wheel running also increased the mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase in the SNpc and for D2 receptors in the caudate-putamen (66).
Moreover, EA stimulation of acupoint Zusanli inhibited visceral pain; fos expression in the brainstem nucleus raphes
dorsalis, shallow SDH, and colonic epithelium; and 5-HT expression in the nucleus raphes
dorsalis and the SDH in a rat model of visceral pain caused by neonate-mother separation .
Dygalo, "Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and Bcl-xL in the rat raphe
nucleus after acute and chronic forced swim stress," Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research, vol.
Mizuno," Direct projections from the midbrain periaqueductal gray and the dorsal raphe
nucleus to the trigeminal sensory complex in the rat," Neuroscience, vol.
In addition, a study demonstrated reduced expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe
after rotenone injection, leading to a depressive-like behavior; this effect was improved with treadmill exercise .
Abbreviations CFA: The complete Freund adjuvant COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2 EA: Electroacupuncture Gi: The gigantocellular reticular nucleus GiA: The gigantocellular reticular nucleus pars alpha IL-1: Interleukin-1 MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase NRM: The nucleus raphe
magnus PAG: The periaqueductal gray p-p38MAPK: Phosphorylated p38MAPK p-p38MAPK-IR: Phosphor-p38MAPK-Immunoreactivity PWT: Paw withdrawal threshold RVM: Rostral ventromedial medulla SCDH: Spinal cord dorsal horn vlPAG: Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray.
The neuronal somas that release this substance are also found in the locus coeruleus, tegmental ventral area, and dorsal raphe
; which modulate the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems (Coplan et al., 1996).
, Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, J.
Furthermore, ziram appeared selectively toxic to DA neurons because serotonergic neurons in the raphe
nuclei of the VMAT2 transgenic line were unaffected by ziram exposure (Figure 1h-j).
There was no evidence of suprasternal clefting and supra umbilical raphe
while the rest of general physical and systemic examinations were un-remarkable.
TRP channels allow cations such as sodium, calcium, and magnesium to pass across membranes and are abundantly expressed in sensory nerves in the oropharyngeal space (see Figure 1), including the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX), and vagus (X) nerves that project directly and indirectly to the solitary tract nucleus in the lower brainstem, which in turn has connections to various targets in the brain and brainstem, including the locus coeruleus and the dorsal raphe
The stress-bearing areas in the maxillary arch are the horizontal plates of the palatine bone, and the relieving areas are midpalatine raphe
and the incisive papilla.