# random sampling

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## sampling

[sam´pling]the selection or making of a sample.

the selection of a group of people, events, behaviors, or other elements that are representative of the population being studied in order to derive conclusions about the entire population from a limited number of observations.

**accidental sampling**a type of nonprobability sampling in which the population selected is easily accessible to the researcher; available subjects are simply entered into the study without any attempt at randomization. Called also convenience sampling.

**chorionic villus sampling**(CVS) sampling of chorionic villi from the villous area of the chorion, a procedure used for prenatal diagnosis at nine to 12 weeks of gestation. A catheter is inserted either through the cervix or through the abdominal wall and fetal chorionic villus tissue for analysis is aspirated under ultrasonic guidance. This has been used for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies, hemoglobinopathies, and biochemical disorders. It allows first trimester diagnosis and direct chromosomal and biochemical analysis but does not screen for neural tube defects or certain other anomalies; some of those may be identified by maternal serum and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein measurements.

**cluster sampling**a type of probability sampling in which the population is divided into groups on the basis of some shared characteristic (such as hospitals grouped by geographic region) and a random sample is drawn from each of these groups.

**convenience sampling**accidental sampling.

**nonprobability sampling**sampling in which not every element of the population has an opportunity of being selected for the sample; the sample is not representative of the population and generalizations cannot be made to the population.

**percutaneous umbilical blood sampling**a procedure used to obtain fetal blood for examination; a sterile needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen and uterus, and guided to one of the umbilical veins via ultrasound. This procedure has begun to replace fetoscopy because it has a lower complication rate. Direct sampling of fetal blood provides more rapid test results than amniocentesis, and a more definitive diagnosis. It can be used to identify chromosomal abnormalities, detect a fetal infection, and assess fetal growth and development. Called also cordocentesis.

**probability sampling**sampling in which each element of a population has an opportunity of being selected for the sample; its purpose is to obtain a sample that is representative of the population and from which generalizations to the population can be made.

**purposive sampling**a type of nonprobability sampling in which the researcher consciously selects specific elements or subjects for inclusion in a study in order to ensure that the elements will have certain characteristics relevant to the study.

**quota sampling**a type of nonprobability sampling in which an accidental sample is adjusted to ensure that certain subgroups are not underrepresented; its purpose is to obtain a sample that is representative of the population to which the researcher wishes to make generalizations.

**random sampling**probability sampling.

**stratified random sampling**sampling in which the population is divided into several groups that are alike in certain ways and a random selection is made from each group.

**systematic sampling**the selection of study objects conducted when an ordered list of all members of the population is available; subjects are chosen from the list at a given uniform interval from each other, using a starting point that is selected randomly.

## ran·dom sam·pling

a selection of elements from a population such that each possible outcome is independent of other possible outcomes and the probability of each member of the population being chosen is equal.

## ran·dom sam·pling

(ran'dŏm sam'pling)A selection of elements by a formal randomizing device for purposes of inference about a population in such a way that the probability of each possible outcome may be precisely specified in advance; the inferences are necessarily stochastic.

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