If the observations are only affected by random errors
, the least squares estimation is the most likely solution.
This analysis showed a reliable drop in random error
in Experimental trials relative to Pre-Test trials (p = .008), confirming our primary prediction.
Similar results follow at E = 0 for the random error
TABLE 1 The Ex-Post Relation beween Real Stock Returns and Real Bond Yields (1957-1997) Regressions of ten-year real stock returns on matched-maturity real bond yields: [r.sub.t,t+n] = [alpha] + [beta][y.sub.t,t+n] + [u.sub.t] where [r.sub.t,t+n] is the ten-year real stock returns, [y.sub.t,t+n] is the ten-year bond returns, and [u.sub.t] is is a random error
4 We used a common seed for the random error
so the sequence of random errors
was identical for each of the four separate experiments.
The two-part disturbance term, [[Epsilon].sub.i], is defined as V + U, where V denotes the uncontrollable shocks or random error
component and is assumed to be normally distributed as V [approximately] (0, [[Sigma].sup.2]), and U represents controllable inefficiencies and is assumed to be half-normally distributed as U [approximately] (0, [[[Sigma].sup.2].sub.u]).
These well-established ideas of random error
and bias provide a succinct and informative summary of people's ability to make LBW decisions.
Since the same measurement channel is used, then voltage measurement should be free from bias errors, therefore random errors
should be summed by their power.
In , to rectify only one single random error
, authors projected triplication error correction coding scheme.
Battaglia and Kollias (2015b) reported that the error in the mean terminal velocity of ice clouds is a function of their reflectivity and is <0.2 m [s.sup.-1] up to 10 dBZ and that the random error
for Z < -5 dBZ is 0.5 m [s.sup.-1]; this should introduce a random error
of <1 m [s.sup.-1] into the inferred horizontal component of the wind.
To highlight the role of random error
, we calculated the "null distribution," or what the distribution of program rankings would look like if all the programs were actually identical and nothing but random estimation error were present.
The term probability of false rejection (Pfr) is used to describe a situation where there are no analytical errors present except for the inherent imprecision or random error
of the method.