If the observations are only affected by

random errors, the least squares estimation is the most likely solution.

This analysis showed a reliable drop in

random error in Experimental trials relative to Pre-Test trials (p = .008), confirming our primary prediction.

Similar results follow at E = 0 for the

random error set.

TABLE 1 The Ex-Post Relation beween Real Stock Returns and Real Bond Yields (1957-1997) Regressions of ten-year real stock returns on matched-maturity real bond yields: [r.sub.t,t+n] = [alpha] + [beta][y.sub.t,t+n] + [u.sub.t] where [r.sub.t,t+n] is the ten-year real stock returns, [y.sub.t,t+n] is the ten-year bond returns, and [u.sub.t] is is a

random error term.

4 We used a common seed for the

random error so the sequence of

random errors was identical for each of the four separate experiments.

The two-part disturbance term, [[Epsilon].sub.i], is defined as V + U, where V denotes the uncontrollable shocks or

random error component and is assumed to be normally distributed as V [approximately] (0, [[Sigma].sup.2]), and U represents controllable inefficiencies and is assumed to be half-normally distributed as U [approximately] (0, [[[Sigma].sup.2].sub.u]).

These well-established ideas of

random error and bias provide a succinct and informative summary of people's ability to make LBW decisions.

Since the same measurement channel is used, then voltage measurement should be free from bias errors, therefore

random errors should be summed by their power.

In [23], to rectify only one single

random error, authors projected triplication error correction coding scheme.

Battaglia and Kollias (2015b) reported that the error in the mean terminal velocity of ice clouds is a function of their reflectivity and is <0.2 m [s.sup.-1] up to 10 dBZ and that the

random error for Z < -5 dBZ is 0.5 m [s.sup.-1]; this should introduce a

random error of <1 m [s.sup.-1] into the inferred horizontal component of the wind.

To highlight the role of

random error, we calculated the "null distribution," or what the distribution of program rankings would look like if all the programs were actually identical and nothing but random estimation error were present.

The term probability of false rejection (Pfr) is used to describe a situation where there are no analytical errors present except for the inherent imprecision or

random error of the method.