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Altace, Apo-Ramipril (CA), Co Ramipril (CA), Lopace (CA), Novo-Ramipril*, Ratio-Ramipril (CA), Sandoz Ramipril (CA), Tritace (UK)
Pharmacologic class: Angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
Therapeutic class: Antihypertensive
Pregnancy risk category D
Inhibits conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Increases plasma renin levels and reduces aldosterone levels, causing systemic vasodilation and decreased cardiac output.
Capsules: 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg
⊘Indications and dosages
Adults: Initially, 2.5 mg P.O. daily in patients not receiving diuretics; may increase dosage slowly p.r.n. according to response. For maintenance, 2.5 to 20 mg/day P.O. as a single dose or in two equally divided doses. If ramipril alone doesn't control blood pressure, a diuretic may be added.
➣ To reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident, or death from cardiovascular causes
Adults: Initially, 2.5 mg P.O. daily for 1 week, followed by 5 mg P.O. daily for the next 3 weeks, then increased as tolerated to a maintenance dosage of 10 mg P.O. daily. In hypertensive patients and those who've had a recent MI, may divide maintenance dose.
➣ Heart failure after MI
Adults: Initially, 2.5 mg P.O. b.i.d.; may decrease to 1.25 mg b.i.d. if higher dosage causes hypotension. Titrate toward target dosage of 5 mg b.i.d. at 3-week intervals.
• Renal impairment
• Concurrent diuretic use
• Angina associated with syndrome X
• Mitral insufficiency
• Renovascular hypertension
• Diabetic or nondiabetic nephropathy
• Hypersensitivity to drug or other ACE inhibitors
• Angioedema with previous ACE inhibitor use or history of hereditary or idiopathic angioedema
Use cautiously in:
• autoimmune diseases, aortic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular or cardiac insufficiency, collagen vascular disease, febrile illness, hepatic or renal impairment, hypotension, neutropenia, chronic cough, proteinuria, renal artery stenosis
• risk factors for development of hyperkalemia (including renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, concurrent use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, or potassium-containing salt substitutes)
• family history of angioedema
• concurrent immunosuppressant or diuretic therapy
• black patients
• elderly patients
• pregnant patients
• breastfeeding patients (avoid use)
• children (safety not established).
• If possible, discontinue diuretics 2 to 3 days before ramipril therapy begins to prevent severe hypotension.
• If patient can't swallow capsule, open it and mix contents in water or apple juice or sprinkle in small amount of applesauce.
• Know that drug may be used alone or with other antihypertensives.
CNS: dizziness, light-headedness, fatigue, headache, vertigo, asthenia
CV: hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, angina pectoris, tachycardia, MI, heart failure
EENT: blurred vision, sinusitis
GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Hematologic: purpura, agranulocytosis
Musculoskeletal: muscle cramps
Respiratory: cough, asthma, upper respiratory tract infection, bronchospasm
Skin: rash, pruritus, urticaria, photosensitivity, angioedema, anaphylactoid reactions
Drug-drug.Diuretics, other antihypertensives: increased hypotension
Gold (sodium aurothiomalate): increased risk of rare nitritoid reactions (including facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension)
Lithium: increased lithium blood level and risk of toxicity
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: may result in deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure and attenuated ACE inhibitor antihypertensive effect
Potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements: increased risk of hyperkalemia
Drug-diagnostic tests.Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium: increased levels
Drug-food.Any food: decreased rate (but not extent) of drug absorption Salt substitutes containing potassium: increased risk of hyperkalemia
• Assess vital signs and cardiovascular status. Ask patient if he's experiencing angina.
• Monitor CBC and liver function tests.
• Closely monitor potassium level. Watch for signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia.
☞ Stay alert for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions (including angioedema), especially in black patients after first dose
• Evaluate for dry, nonproductive cough.
• Tell patient he may take with or without food.
☞ Instruct patient to immediately report swelling of tongue or face or difficulty breathing.
• Teach patient how to monitor and record blood pressure.
• Tell patient drug may cause dry, nonproductive cough. Instruct him to report this problem if it becomes bothersome.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.
• Advise patient to move slowly when sitting up or standing, to avoid dizziness from sudden blood pressure decrease.
• Inform patient that excessive fluid loss (as from sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea) and inadequate fluid intake increase risk of light-headedness (especially in hot weather).
• Tell patient to avoid salt substitutes containing potassium.
• Advise female patient to tell prescriber if she is pregnant. Caution her not to take drug during third trimester or when breastfeeding.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.
ramipril/ra·mi·pril/ (rah-mi´pril) an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor used in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure and the prevention of a major cardiovascular event in high-risk patients.
ramiprilAn ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME inhibitor drug that has been shown to be capable of greatly extending life after heart attack. The drug is especially useful in the condition of dilated cardiomyopathy and in reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke in predisposed persons. A brand name is Tritace.
drug class: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor;
action: selectively suppresses renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; inhibits ACE; prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II; results in dilation of arterial and venous vessels;
uses: hypertension, alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics; congestive heart failure immediately after myocardial infarction.