Terms used here are listed alphabetically outside the parentheses; those within parentheses are alternatives found in the literature: copulatory spicules (copulatory stylets); epidermal sclerites (spicules); lower gametoducts (spawning ducts, shell gland); mantle cavity (pallial cavity); monostichous radula
(monoserial) [one tooth per row]; radula
sheath); upper gametoducts (pericardioducts); vestibule, vestibular (atrium, atrial); ventrolateral pharyngeal foregut glands (ventral salivary glands).
Central tooth of radula
very narrow, width less than 5[micron]m, and sharply pointed.
Bilaterally symmetrical motor neurons, located in the paired buccal ganglia in Helisoma, control the feeding musculature and associated structures: the radula
, odontophore, salivary glands, and esophagus.
Genera of the Spiraxinae are based primarily on soft anatomical characters and the radula
He also highlighted potentially significant anatomical similarities including a peduncle posterior to the right eyestalk (distinct from the subocular tentacle) and hooded rachidian teeth in the radula
, but pointed out that these may be plesiomorphic character states.
The number of rows of chitinized radula
teeth in each of 10 larvae was counted using the method of Tong et al.
The porcelain shells feed predominantly on macro and microalgae, which they scrape with their radula
. In the sampling locations, the tide wells and propitious areas for their development are frequently found.
However, I have been able to extract a radula
wrote in his statement of facts on file in Central District Court.
In Aplysia, movement of the radula
during feeding has been shown to be under the control of the neurons containing APGW-amide (Jing & Weiss 2001, Morgan et al.
As an adaptation for suctorial feeding, these sea slugs have a uniserial radula
and an ascus-sac, which is an epithelium-lined blind pocket for the accumulation of used radula
teeth (for review, see Jensen, 1993, 1997).
Calderon (UCR-INB0001495772); bar code of holotype associated with three components: SEM stub with radula
(UCR-INB0003764987), SEM stub with a piece of jaw (INB0003764958) and a slide preparation with a piece of jaw (UCR-INB0003765066); Paratypes.