infestans both race-specific resistance
(i.e specific, vertical, or "gene-for gene" interaction) and race-non-specific resistance (i.e, horizontal, or partial resistance) can be developed (Nowicki et al., 2012).
Loegering and Burton reported that race-specific resistance
genes in wheat cultivars could be identified by comparing their reactions to different Pst pathotypes with those of cultivars with known resistance genes (Loegering and Burton, 1974).
(18.) Johansson, O.N., et al., Role of the penetration-resistance genes PEN1, PEN2 and PEN3 in the hypersensitive response and race-specific resistance
in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Deployment of race-specific resistance
gene has capable of providing highly effective protection against the disease .
One is major gene resistance, sometimes also called race-specific resistance
, in which the wheat proteins recognize specific rust proteins and quickly wipe out the invader.
The Psp race-specific resistance
to halo blight can be inherited quantitatively or by a single dominant or recessive allele (Asensio et al., 1993; Taylor et al., 1978, 1996b).
Department of Agriculture efforts to breed potatoes for race-specific resistance
to the disease began in the 1920s.
After the establishment of hybridization programs, varieties with adult plant resistance (race non-specific resistance) and race-specific resistance
With regard to more potentially changing of rusts fungi by different events; mutation, migration in long-distances and selection pressure of cultivar genotypes on pathogen genotypes [2, 15], researchers should deploy race-nonspecific or combination of race-nonspecific with race-specific resistance
instead of using only race-specific.
Considering the high adaptability and the rapid distribution of virulent isolates of Puccinia triticina over long distances, the best strategy for breeding durable leaf rust resistant cultivars should be the combination of race-specific resistance
gene(s) with race nonspecific resistance gene(s) or QTL.
This is made more difficult by the presence of field resistance, in which the progress and severity of infection are reduced in the absence of race-specific resistance
genes (Marchctti, 1983; Wang et al., 1994; Tabien et al., 2000; Tabien et al., 2002).
However, high genetic variation and the ability of the pathogen to evolve into new races with added new virulence always have been the major limiting factors in a successful long-term management of stripe rust when race-specific resistance
genes are used.