This was demonstrated by the upregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to the treatment of membrane-permeable agonist, quisqualate
, in the presence of impermeable, non-transported antagonist, LY393053.
This enzyme is inhibited by [alpha]-aminoadipate and quisqualate
. 3-HK inhibits both KAT I and KAT III activity but is more active against KAT II .
Concanavalin A selectively reduces desensitization of mammalian neuronal quisqualate
(80, 81) At least three receptor types are generally accepted as being responsible for glutamate excitotoxicity--those selectively activated by NMDA, quisqualate, and kainate.
(81) KYNA is a tryptophan metabolite that has selective activity against NMDA, quisqualate, and kainate receptors in the central nervous system.
Glutamate binds to at least four classes of receptors: NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), kainate, AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxax-zoleproprionic acid) and a family of Q (quisqualate
Lynch, "Contributions of quisqualate
and NMDA receptors to the induction and expression of LTP," Science, vol.
was an even more potent agonist than glutamate, while L-aspartate was as potent as glutamate (Hashemzadeh-Gargari and Freschi, 1992).
Glutamate stimulates filopodia outgrowth on cultured astrocytes and these effects are mimicked by both kainate and quisqualate
agonists , as well as mGluR agonist .
initiation of swimming activity in the medicinal leech by glutamate, quisqualate
, and kainate.
Mayer, "Structure-activity relationships for amino acid transmitter candidates acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate and quisqualate
receptors," The Journal of Neuro-science, vol.
Huettner, "Glutamate receptor channels in rat DRG neurons: activation by kainate and quisqualate
and blockade of desensitization by Con A," Neuron, vol.