quintan fever

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recurring every five days (i.e., on the fourth day after the previous episode).
quintan fever trench fever.

trench fe·ver

an uncommon rickettsial fever caused by Bartonella quintana and transmitted by the louse Pediculus humanus, first appearing as an epidemic during the trench warfare of World War I; characterized by the sudden onset of chills and fever, myalgia (especially of the back and legs), headache, and general malaise that typically lasts 5 days but may recur.

quintan fever

(1) An older term for any fever paroxysm that occurs in five-day cycles (with the first and last days included in the computation).
(2) Quintan malaria, see there. 
(3) Trench fever, see there.