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any of a group of synthetic antibacterial agents that includes cinoxacin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


Any of a class of synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs derived from quinoline compounds.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

anabolic steroid

A drug or hormone-like substance chemically or pharmacologically related to 17-α-alkylated testosterone that promotes muscle growth, which are commonly abused by athletes. Lipid changes by ASs are more marked with oral stanazol (manufactured for horses) than with IV testosterone; it decreases HDL-C (especially HDL2) and increases hepatic TG lipase (HDL) catabolism.
Children, adolescents with delayed puberty, decreased growth, small penis, hypogonadism, testosterone deficiency, osteoporosis management, aplastic anaemia, endometriosis, angioedema, sports performance enhancement (no longer legal), relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression and cognition.

Oral, parenteral.
Metabolic effects
Increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgenesis, catabolism and gluticocototitosis.
Adverse effects (men)
Breast enlargement (gynecomastia), testicular atrophy, sterility, sperm abnormalities, impotence, prostatic hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, myocardial infarction and fatal arrhythmias, peliosis hepatis, cholestasis, hepatic adenomas, testicular atrophy, peripheral oedema, intracerebral thrombosis.

Adverse effects (women)
Clitoral hypertrophy, beard growth, baldness, deepened voice, decreased breast size.

Adverse effects (men and women)
Aggression and antisocial behavior, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, peliosis hepatis, haemorrhage, jaundice, acne, accelerated bone maturation resulting in short stature, liver tumours (hepatic adenomas and CA) which may regress with abstinence; AS abusers are at an increased risk for HIV transmission, given the common practice of sharing of needles when injecting ASs.

ASs are detectable to 1 parts per billion 4 days after last use if the hormone is water-soluble, or 14 days after use in lipid-soluble compounds.

FDA status
ASs are schedule-III drugs per the Controlled Substances Act.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.


Fluoroquinolone Infectious disease Any of a family of broad-spectrum oral antibiotics–eg, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxicin, which target bacterial DNA gyrase and concentration-dependent inhibitors of DNA synthesis; bacterial resistance to quinolones is rare and hinges on mutations of gyrase; quinolones are active against most aerobes, including bacteria resistant to other antibiotics; they are effective in GI, GU, prostatic, respiratory infections, STDs Adverse effects GI discomfort, vague CNS Sx
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This study searched to verify the possible presence of antibiotic residues in pasteurized and unpasteurized milk, produced and marketed in the microregion of Capanema, State of Parana, Brazil, through qualitative screening methods for detection of four different groups of drugs, [beta]-lactams, tetracyclines, quinolones and sulfonamides, to map the status of the chemical milk quality in respect of contamination by antibiotic residues.
Volume ratio between quinolone and coal tar was 20: 1 and the static time was 24 h.
The rate of resistance to TMP/SMX was up to 27 (18%) and this rate for quinolone family was: ciprofloxacin 27 (18%), gatifloxacin 24 (16%), moxifloxacin 25 (17%), and ofloxacin 30 (20%).
et al.21 in 2009 advocated the use of quinolones over chloramphenicol, while Effa EE et al.22 in 2011 recommended the use of newer quinolones like gatifloxacin due to resistance of older quinolones.
Liu et al., "Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance-current knowledge and future perspectives," Journal of International Medical Research, vol.
Gascon, "Quinolone resistance in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli causing diarrhea in travelers to India in comparison with other geographical areas," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.
The majority of studies support the use of a quinolone, such as ciprofloxacin for TRUS biopsy prophylaxis (Briffaux et al., 2009; Lindstedt et al., 2006; Schaeffer et al., 2007; Wagenlehener et al., 2013; Yamamoto, Ishitoya, Segawa, Kamoto, & Okumura, 2008).
The combination of rifampin, doxycycline, and streptomycin often is used whereas in non-responded or complicated cases, quinolones could be added to the conventional treatment as a third agent (Falagas and Bliziotis, 2006).
(19) Previous studies of dual antimicrobial therapy for treating brucellosis revealed varying relapse rates when using rifampin combined with a quinolone. For use of ofloxacin combined with rifampin, relapse rates ranged between 3.2% (8) and 14.3%, (9) and 15% when ciprofloxacin was combined with rifampin.
Resistance mechanisms such as production of [beta]-lactamases, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and carbapanemases have caused serious therapeutic problems.
There is not so much information about the recent status of quinolone resistant E.