quinine


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Related to quinine: quinine water, quinine sulfate

quinine

 [kwi´nīn]
an alkaloid of cinchona that is an antimalarial agent; it suppresses the asexual erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites and has a slight effect on the gametocytes. It also has analgesic, antipyretic, mild oxytocic, cardiac depressant, and sclerosing properties, and it decreases the excitability of the motor endplate. It is administered orally as the dihydrochloride, hydrochloride or sulfate salt or parenterally as the dihydrochloride salt in the treatment of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is also used orally as the sulfate salt in the treatment of leg and foot cramps.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

qui·nine

(kwī'nīn, -nēn, kwin'-īn, -ēn),
The most important of the alkaloids derived from cinchona; an antimalarial effective against the asexual and erythrocytic forms of the parasite, but having no effect on the exoerythrocytic (tissue) forms. It does not produce a radical cure of malaria produced by Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, or P. ovale, but is used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

quinine

(kwī′nīn′)
n.
A bitter alkaloid, C20H24N2O2, derived from the bark of several species of cinchona, used usually in the form of its sulfate salt to treat malaria and formerly to treat leg cramps. It is used in the form of its hydrochloride or sulfate salt as a flavoring, especially in tonic water.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

qui·nine

(kwī'nīn, kwin'ēn)
The most important of the alkaloids derived from cinchona; an antimalarial agent effective against the asexual and erythrocytic forms of the parasite but having no effect on the exoerythrocytic (tissue) forms; does not effect a radical cure of malaria produced by Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, or P. ovale, but is used in the treatment of cerebral malaria and other severe attacks of malignant tertian malaria and in malaria produced by chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum; also used as an antipyretic, analgesic, sclerosing agent, stomachic, and oxytocic (occasionally), and in the treatment of atrial fibrillation, myotonia congenita, and other myopathies.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

quinine

The first drug found to be effective in the prevention and treatment of MALARIA. Quinine was originally derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is still used to treat CHLOROQUINE-resistant malaria but is no longer used as a PROPHYLACTIC. The drug is on the WHO official list.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

quinine

an antimalarial DRUG, extracted from the bark of the Cinchona tree. It is an ALKALOID and is effective against SPOROZOITES in the RED BLOOD CELLS.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Quinine

One of the first treatments for malaria, quinine is a natural product made from the bark of the Cinchona tree. It was popular until being superseded by the development of chloroquine in the 1940s. In the wake of widespread chloroquine resistance, however, it has become popular again. Quinine, or its close relative quinidine, can be given intravenously to treat severe Falciparum malaria.
Mentioned in: Malaria
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

qui·nine

(kwī'nīn, kwin'ēn)
An agent effective against the asexual and erythrocytic forms of malaria but with no effect on the exoerythrocytic (tissue) forms; does not effect a radical cure of malaria, but is used to treat cerebral malaria and other severe outbreaks of malignant tertian malaria and in malaria produced by chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
In other words, did the reduction in mortality relate specifically to the more rapid reduction in parasite count or would more effective management of the organ dysfunction have nullified the mortality differences between artesunate and quinine?
In Figure 2(c), it is evident that the two sucrose concentrations did not mask the aversive quality of the FDT+ and there was virtually no change in the long-duration ILIs; however, in Figure 2(d), there is a significant ([F.sub.[2,24]] = 9.779, p = .001) shortening of the ILI when 750 mM sucrose was added to the quinine concentrations compared with quinine alone (1.5 mM p = .047; 2.0 mM p = .017; 2.5 mM p = .012).
Quinine came topmost (92%) followed by chloroquine (90%) as the antimalarial agents most of the respondents were familiar with.
Quinine, monodesethylamodiaquine, mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin, artesunate, piperaquine, and doxycycline were dissolved in methanol and then diluted in water to final concentrations ranging from 6 nmol/L to 3,149 nmol/L for quinine, 1.9 nmol/L to 1,988 nmol/L for monodesethylamodiaquine, 1.5 nmol/L to 392 nmol/L for mefloquine, 0.1 nmol/L to 107 nmol/L for dihydroartemisinin, 0.1 nmol/L to 98 nmol/L for artesunate, 1.9 nmol/L to 998 nmol/L for piperaquine and 0.1 [micro]mol/L to 502 [micro]mol/L for doxycycline.
Further history revealed that she had a similar episode of palpitations five months ago, after taking Quinine tablets.
30/32 (93.75%) of the parenteral anti -malarial used was intravenous quinine.2 (6.25%) had intramuscular artemether and none had intravenous artesunate.
Until 1985, parenteral quinine was the only option for treatment of severe malaria even though it was not available commercially and had to be obtained through CDC.
(1992) conducted a randomized doubleblind study to determine the frequency and severity of leg cramps in 29 patients on dialysis with a history of leg cramps comparing the effectiveness of quinine 325 mg to vitamin E 400 international units nightly.
She was discharged on day 6 with instructions to continue taking quinine and doxycycline for seven days, and primaquine for eight weeks.
Although physicians argued about whether the drug was effective and disagreed about dosage, quinine soon became popular among Westerners suffering from the ague.
Which disease can be treated using the drug quinine? 7.
A recent Cochrane meta-analysis(tm) compared the efficacy of quinine with artesunate for severe malaria.