quality-adjusted life-years

quality-adjusted life-years

,

QALY

A measure of health that combines the duration of life and its degradation by disease or death. A year in perfect health is considered to have a QALY of 1.0; a year of life in a coma is assigned a lower QALY approaching zero.
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The researchers found that the no-AED strategy resulted in 1.63 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at a cost of $42,757.
These strategies had quality-adjusted life-years of 2.87, 2.81, and 2.79, respectively.
Clinical outcomes included depression-free days and estimated quality-adjusted life-years.
in 2009 saves 1.2 million quality-adjusted life-years and will generate $184 billion in lifetime social value, or $45,000 per child.
The college highlighted a number of proposals in a position paper, including greater price transparency; eliminating the ban on use of quality-adjusted life-years as a comparative effectiveness measure in research conducted by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute; eliminating the ban on Medicare's ability to negotiate on drug pricing; allowing the re-importation of drugs made in the United States; limitations and improved oversight on patent exclusivity; and more oversight of drug formularies to ensure tiering and restrictions are not creating economic barriers to access.
At age 38 years, cell-free DNA screening as the first-line test becomes the optimal strategy; at age 40 years, cell-free DNA as a primary screen becomes optimal and is cost-effective, according to this decision-analytic model study in which investigators compared the clinical outcomes, quality-adjusted life-years, and costs associated with 6 strategies of prenatal testing.
In the present simulation model, a hybrid strategy based on annual or biennial FIT starting at age 50, followed by a single colonoscopy at age 66, resulted in decreased CRC incidence and mortality, gain in quality-adjusted life-years, and reduction in cost comparable to those of single-test strategies.
It was seen that the tailored fixed-dose strategy saved more quality-adjusted life-years and treated fewer persons with high-dose statin therapy as compared to the intensive treat-to-target approach.
But when the payment decisions were made, the results would be in; lives would already have been saved, and the award decisions could use standard data and estimates like QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years) to guide its decisions.
Quality-adjusted life-years are a measure of health outcomes that reflects both lives saved and the patient's valuations of quality of life in alternative states of health.
For these patients, the population benefit of warfarin anticoagulation was least using stroke rates from the Anticoagulation and Risk factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) study and greatest using those from the Danish National Patient Registry (6,290 versus 24,110 quality-adjusted life-years).
The optimal interval was the one that would yield the highest number of benefits (breast cancer deaths averted, life-years gained, and quality-adjusted life-years gained) while yielding the lowest number of harms (false-positive mammograms, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis).

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