After the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were seen, the probe was moved to the posterior and the quadratus lumborum
muscle was observed.
The quadratus lumborum
stabilizes the frontal flexion and extension and resists shearing of spine through activation in extension, flexion and lateral bending.
Blocks were administered before operation and general anesthesia.
Also, during the palpation of the quadratus lumborum
and paravertebral muscles, subjects M.B.
Kolli et al., "Injectate spread following anterior sub-costal and posterior approaches to the quadratus lumborum
block: a comparative cadaveric study," European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol.
In order to take account for any misalignment due to the position change, the alignment of the fused datasets was fine adjusted using the borders of the L5 transverse process and vertebral body as well as the positions of the psoas major, quadratus lumborum
, and erector spinae muscles.
The following muscle fascicles were involved in this spine model: 5 transversus, 3 spinalis, 1 rectus abdominis (RA), 58 erector spinae (ES), 38 lumbar multifidus, 24 thoracic multifidus, 12 oblique externus, 12 oblique internus, 22 psoas major, 10 quadratus lumborum
, and 18 semispinalis.
Retroperitoneal space is limited anteriorly by peritoneal covering (parietal peritoneum), posteriorly by posterior abdominal wall (transversalis fascia), superiorly by 12th rib and vertebrae, inferiorly by the base of sacrum and iliac crest, and laterally by the sites of borders of quadratus lumborum
Low back pain is most often associated with quadratus lumborum
muscle Trigger Points (TPs), often with an accompanying lumbar multifidi and superficial paraspinal muscle TPs.
In addition, the dancers were likely utilizing lateral trunk muscles (quadratus lumborum
, for example), but these were not measured in this study.
When she puts her leg on the barre, she keeps it no higher than 90 degrees and adds in a side cambre to get at her quadratus lumborum
muscle in her lower back which sometimes gets tight.
This technique provides high temporal resolution of surface muscle activity but is limited in its ability to evaluate deep muscles such as the quadratus lumborum
(QL) and transversus abdominus (TA).