pyruvate dehydrogenase

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py·ru·vate de·hy·dro·gen·ase

a structurally distinct collection of enzymes containing pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide), dihydrolipoyl transacetylase, and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase.

pyruvate dehydrogenase

(1) Puruvate dehydrogenase (cytochrome), EC (a deleted enzyme name, now covered by pyruvate dehydrogenase (quinone), EC
(2) Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring), EC

muscle enzymes

the table lists some of the most often-mentioned enzymes present in skeletal muscle, with their locations and functions. Apart from actomyosin and myosin ATPases which are associated with the contractile mechanism, they are by no means specific to muscle, being present and highly active also in other tissues. See also Krebs cycle, muscle fibre types.
Table 1: Muscle enzymes
Name SiteCatalyses…
Actomyosin ATPase (amATPase) myosin head groups hydrolysis (Mg-dependent and triggered by rise in [Ca2+]) of terminal phosphate group of ATP when head-group is in interaction with actin, releasing energy that powers force- generation. (Compare myosin ATPase)
Creatine kinase (CK) cytoplasm transfer of phosphate group from creatine phosphate to ADP, producing ATP and creatine. Isoenzymes can be distinguished in blood when either skeletal or cardiac muscle has been damaged.
Hexokinase (HK) cytoplasm 'capture' of glucose after uptake from the blood, by conversion to the impermeant glucose 6-phosphate, in type 1 muscle fibres, which utilize glucose directly.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytoplasm reduction of pyruvate to lactate when oxygen tension is low, and the converse when it is high. Isoenzymes can be distinguished in blood when either skeletal or cardiac muscle has been damaged.
Myosin ATPase (mATPase) myosin head groups hydrolysis (Ca2+ dependent, Mg2+ independent) of terminal phosphate group of ATP by head group alone, not interacting with actin (so not contraction-producing: cf actomyosin ATPase). Basic histochemical marker for fast vs. slow fibres.
Phosphofructokinase (PFK) cytoplasm conversion of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-diphosphate; rate-limiting for glycolysis, and sensitive to very many stimulatory and inhibitory influences.
Phosphorylase (PPL) cytoplasmremoval of hexose units, one at a time, from glycogen, to form glucose 1-phosphate: rate-limiting enzyme of, and histochemical marker for, glycogenolysis.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) mitochondrial envelope oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate (from cytoplasm) to form acetyl CoA, which thence feeds into tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle
Sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase (srATPase) SR membrane pumping of [Ca2+] back into SR after its electrically stimulated release
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mitochondrial inner membrane oxidation of succinate to fumarate, in tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle. Histochemical marker for aerobic capacity.


a salt, ester or anion of pyruvic acid. The term is used interchangeably with pyruvic acid. Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis and may be metabolized in the body to lactate or to acetyl CoA. In yeast it is metabolized to ethanol.

pyruvate carboxylase
an enzyme concerned in the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetic acid.
pyruvate dehydrogenase
actively concerned in the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and CO2.
pyruvate kinase
a glycolytic pathway enzyme (called also PK) which catalyzes the formation of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). A deficiency of the enzyme is a hereditary defect in humans and occurs also in Beagle and Basenji dogs, causing a familial nonspherocytic anemia.
pyruvate transaminase
References in periodicals archive ?
The Warburg phenotype leads to inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase and accumulation of pyruvate.
Its principal site of pharmacodynamic action is the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex (Stacpoole 1989), a gatekeeper enzyme for regulating carbohydrate fuel metabolism in cells [see Supplemental Material, Figure 4 (doi:10.
A new case of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a novel mutation in the PDX1 gene.
3] Nonstandard abbreviations: PDH, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ACL, ATP-citrate lyase; Hb [A.
Arginine 302 mutations in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 [alpha] subunit gene: identification of further patients and in vitro demonstration of pathogenicity.
Enzyme inhibitory auto-antibodies to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis differ for mammalian, yeast and bacterial enzymes: implications for molecular mimicry.
DNA diagnosis of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in female patients with congenital lactic acidaemia.
Our ELISA method used polystyrene microtiter plates (Nunc Maxisorp) coated with porcine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase (cat.
This could reflect the heteroplasmy of mitochondrial defects (the random variation in the proportion of normal and defective mitochondria) in different tissues, but the similar findings found by us in patients with NKH (in the absence of recent seizures) and by others in patients with X-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency [9] suggest that the increase in CSF lactate may result from tissue specificity of electron transport chain proteins.
The LBE treated cells showed a specific increase in expression of PPAR target gene expression, including fatty acid binding protein 4, fatty acid transport protein 4, CD36 molecule, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, liver X receptor alpha and lipogenic stearoyl-CoA desaturase.
Autistic and schizophrenic metabolonomic patterns include low efficiency pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, dominant GABA shunt, Warburg glycolytic phenotype, hyperammonemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, porphyria, low cholesterol and bile acid levels (R.