pyrrolizidine


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pyrrolizidine

a specific chemical configuration which is common to a number of naturally occurring compounds called the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Common plant sources are in the genera Crotalaria, Echium, Heliotropium, Senecio.

pyrrolizidine alkaloidosis
the disease caused by poisoning with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The hepatic lesion tends to be chronic and is characterized by necrosis, megalocytosis of hepatocytes due to inhibition of mitosis, biliary ductule, proliferation, vasculitis and perivenous fibrosis. Lesions are most severe in the liver and result in the syndrome of jaundice, photosensitization and hepatic encephalopathy. Some alkaloids cause lung damage characterized by edema, fibrosis, alveolar epithelialization and emphysema, e.g. jaagsiekte. Megalocytosis also occurs in the kidney and there may be extensive nephrosis. There may also be ulceration of the mucosa of the esophagus, stomach and intestines and carcinogenesis is a feature in some animals. An incidental pathogenesis is a concurrent chronic copper poisoning causing the disease toxemic jaundice.
pyrrolizidine alkaloids
toxic alkaloids, esters of retronecine, heliotridine, including senecionine, jacobine, monocrotaline, spectabiline, heliotrine and lasiocarpine. All cause pyrrolizidine alkaloidosis (see above). Common plant sources are in the genera crotalaria, echium, heliotropium, senecio.
References in periodicals archive ?
While the butterbur plant itself contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), which are hepatotoxic and carcinogenic, extracts of butterbur root that are almost completely free from these alkaloids are available.
Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.
Those taking pyrrolizidine alkaloids should avoid butterbur, but it otherwise can help prevent migraine when dosed at 50-75 mg daily divided up into 2-3 for ages 8-9 years and 100-150 mg daily divided up into 2-3 for ages 10-17 years.
Molecular characterization of sheep ruminal enrichments that detoxify pyrrolizidine alkaloids by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning.
Exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food, in particular for frequent and high consumers of tea and herbal infusions, is a possible long-term concern for human health due to their potential carcinogenicity, say EFSAs experts.
Introduction: Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids have long been considered hepatotoxic and potentially carcinogenic, and herbs containing them are banned from use in Australia.
This tonic, anti-inflammatory herb is no longer recommended for internal use because its pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) may cause liver toxicity, but comfrey tea can be safely applied as a rinse or poultice to inflamed joints or sore spines.
Background: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are commonly found in many plants including those used in medical therapeutics.
pyrrolizidine and indolizidine) cause serious toxicity and even death for horses, cattle and sheep that graze on such types of plants.