pyroglutamic acid

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5-ox·o·pro·line (Glp),

A keto derivative of proline that is formed nonenzymatically from glutamate, glutamine, and γ-glutamylated peptides; it is also produced by the action of γ-glutamylcyclotransferase; elevated levels of 5-oxoproline are often associated with problems of glutamine or glutathione metabolism.
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In Figure 1, we demonstrate that pyroglutamic acid is elevated in mold-exposed patients, which indicates these patients have a higher usage of glutathione (GSH).
A total of 16 metabolites had a confirmed identity (Table 3), namely, aminoethanol, b-amino isobutyric acid, citric acid, 1,2-dithiane-4,5-diol, ethanedioic acid, glycine, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, L-threonine, phosphoric acid, pyroglutamic acid, ([R.sup.*],[S.sup.*])-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid, serine, succinic acid, uracil, and uric acid.
Pan (2007) purified ten organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, glycolic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, pyroglutamic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid from this fruit.
Parts of the peaks were identified as 1, lactic acid; 2, alanine; 3, valine; 4, leucine; 5, proline; 6, glycine; 7, uracil; 8, fumaric acid; 9, serine; 10, threonine; 11, malic acid; 12, pyroglutamic acid; 13, asparagine; 14, hydroxyproline; 15, creatinine; 16, ornithine; 17, glutamic acid; 18, phenylalanine; 19, ribose; 20, glutamine; 21, hypoxanthine; 22, glucose; 23, hexadecanoic acid; 24, linoleic acid; 25, oleic acid; 26, tryptophan; 27, stearic acid; 28, glucose-6-phosphate; 29, maltose; and 30, cholesterol.
Pandey, "Metal incorporated molecularly imprinted polymer-based electrochemical sensor for enantio-selective analysis of pyroglutamic acid isomers," Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol.
In the hippocampus of mice that ingested theanine (6 mg/kg) in drinking water for 2 weeks, the levels of Glu and pyroglutamic acid were significantly reduced, and conversely GABA increased (Inoue et al., 2016), indicating that theanine modulates GABA production from Glu.
Other acids isolated from honey are acetic acid, butyric acid, citric acid, malic acid, formic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and pyroglutamic acid, and inorganic acids such as phosphoric and hydrochloric acids.
In previous studies, the molten [alpha] form of L-Glu was eventually transformed into polyglutamic acid via stepwise changes of a [beta] form of L-Glu followed by a pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) [8-11].
This study focuses on the enzyme human glutaminyl cyclase (GC) because it begins the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid in the hypothalamus, adrenal medulla, and other parts of the brain.
Furthermore, these proteins are more active than ribonucleases currently available even though the proteins of this invention lack an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid, which has been found to be necessary for ribonucleolytic activity.
A pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline) level was also markedly elevated (1843 [micro]g/mg of creatinine, 18 times the normal level).
Glutaminyl cyclase cyclizes N-terminal glutamine to pyroglutamic acid in such peptides as TRH.