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A breakdown product of bone collagen, excreted in urine, and assayed as a measure of osteoclast activity; increased in disease states such as Paget disease, primary hyperparathyroidism, and postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


A breakdown product of bone collagen, excreted in urine, and assayed as a measure of osteoclast activity; increased in disease states (e.g., Paget disease, primary hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis).
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
To overcome this problem, cationic surfactants, such as phosphonium [18, 19], pyridinium [20], and imidazolium [21, 22], have been used to modify layered silicate because of their higher thermal stabilities.
When two viologen fragments were connected with a propyl linker, the molecule exhibited a higher tendency for a chelatelike complexation with chloride anions in polar DMSO/[H.sub.2]O media, where chlorides were found to be complexed through a dense hydrogen bond network [31], while the iodides were found to be driven by charge-transfer processes with the electron-deficient pyridinium rings in the crystal lattice [31].
On the other hand, the reaction of 13 with 2 equivalents of pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (PPTS) [14] in 2-propanol at 50[degrees]C for 48 h afforded a mixture of compounds 1a/1b (53% yield) in a 1:1 ratio, together another compound (27%) still containing only one protective methoxymethoxy group.
FTIR spectrum of the purified product reveals the presence at about 1652 [cm.sup.-1] of the band assigned to pyridinium group [13], besides the bands at 1601 (> C=N), 1034-1102 (Si--O--Si), 1271 (Si--[CH.sub.3]), 812 (Si--[CH.sub.3]) (Fig.
[beta]-Cyclodextrin ([beta]-CD), 2-methoxypropene, pyridinium 4-toluene sulfonate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dichloromethane (DCM), and gelatin were obtained from Shanghai Chemical Industries Co., Ltd.
At the same time, there are several published and patented works based on the successful industrial application of Ni plating baths based on Ni sulfate (NiSO4(H2O)6), Ni chloride (NiCl2*6H2O), and Ni sulfamate (H4N2NiO6S2) salts [5].The effects of diamin [6], propargyl alcohol (PA), butynediolethoxylate (BEO), and pyridinium sulphobetaine (PPS) additives were also investigated [7].
Pyridinium and imidazolium ionic liquids were tested, and it was observed that the same ionic liquids have extraction ability to both S- and N-compounds [1, 20, 21].
For example, an isobutane-butene alkylation catalyzed with butyl pyridinium chloroaluminate, and co-catalyzed with t-butyl chloride, in literature has been mentioned [1].
In this work, we therefore propose an investigation of the properties of hexadecyl pyridinium, 1-vinyl hexadecyl imidazolium, 1-vinyl octa-decyl imidazolium, dihexadecyl imidazolium, dioctadecyl imidazolium, and tributyl hexadecyl phosphonium modified montmorillonites and of their linear low density polyethylene nanocomposites.
Levels of serum and synovial fluid pyridinium crosslinks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Increasing the degree of quaternization of the pyridinium group generates an increment of the charge density in the corona of the aggregate and consequently a significant increase of the electrostatic repulsion between ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide chains.