Especially, neuronal death occurs in the hippocampus and results in learning and memory deficits.[sup], In humans and experimental animals, the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) area in the hippocampus is known as one of the most vulnerable regions to TGCI,[sup], in which pyramidal neurons in the pyramidal layer
die from several days after TGCI.[sup],
The SIRT1immunoreactive neurons were observed and analyzed in the pyramidal layer
of the hippocampus (Figure 4) and the dentate gyrus (Figure 5).
In comparison, in T group (Figure 4(b)), the organization of the pyramidal layer
is lost: chromatolysis, a sign of cellular damage, can be observed, and the cell body is swollen, with a loss of Nissl substance.
In addition, Magarinos & McEwen study showed that type 1 diabetes induced neuronal apoptosis in pyramidal layer
of CA3 subfield of hippocampus.
Additionally, A[beta] deposits (Congo red), GFAP immunoreactivity (immunohisto-chemistry), and neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampal pyramidal layer
(Nissl) were examined as measures of [A[beta].sub.1-42]-induced neurodegeneration.
flavicollis had a significant asymmetry in the deep subiculum in which the pyramidal layer
is significantly larger in the left hippocampus compared to the right (24).
This feature was limited mainly to the medial dorsal part of the telencephalon, subdivision 2 (Dm2; Figure 2a), and the pyramidal layer
of the mesencephalic stratum griseum central (SGC; Figure 2b), which showed consistent dark axonal processes.
The cerebral cortex is composed of sex layers, molecular layer, external granular layer, external pyramidal layer
, internal granular layer, internal pyramidal layer
, and multiform layer (Pal et al, 2003).
Coagulation with output power of 4-5 W completely damaged the neurons and NF protein in the molecular layer, external granular layer, and external pyramidal layer
. Conclusions: The electro-coagulation not only destroyed the neurons and NF protein, but also reduced the rCBF.
Points that fell on the hippocampal pyramidal layer
were counted as test point.
Although, several studies reported the adverse effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus on hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and cerebrum (Ahmadpour & Haghir, 2011; Beauquis et al, 2006; Jackson-Guilford et al, 2000; Khaksar et al., 2010; Li et al., 2002; Piotrowski et al., 2001) and studies have shown the adverse effects of gestational diabetes on hippocampus, spinal cord and cerebellum (Golalipour et al, 2012, 2014; Najafdari et al., 2014; Razi et al, 2014), but there is no study about the effect of gestational diabetes on neuronal development of the giant pyramidal neurons and internal pyramidal layer
thickness in brain cortex.
In this research, nanometric films were created on micrometric pyramidal layers
by using catalytic expulsion characteristics of silver nanoparticles in comparison with silicon, which minimizes the light reflection.