relative pupillary constriction
=- [(baseline pupil diameter - maximally constricted pupil diameter)/ (baseline pupil diameter)] * 100%, (1)
She also admitted using tramadol, opium, and opioid derivatives; these substances induce a paradoxical effect on her pupil leading to pupillary constriction
. The patient had no prior history of head trauma, brain tumors, or any other neurological conditions.
Relative change: a) pupillary contraction amplitude, b) rate of pupillary constriction
, for a single participant in subsequent stages of measurement
Broncho-constriction, hyper salivation, lacrimation, excessive sweating, frequent involuntarily urination/ defecation and miosis (pupillary constriction
) were observed in two animals which may be due to stimulation of muscarinic receptors activity as commonly observed in organo-phosphorus toxicity.
Symptoms most commonly reported by the 34 farm workers were nausea (97%), headache (94%), eye irritation (85%), muscle weakness (82%), tearing (68%), vomiting (79%), and salivation (56%); the most commonly observed signs were bradycardia (21%), diaphoresis (15%), and miosis (pupillary constriction
) (12%) (Table 1).
Total 166 234 400 None of the subjects with ptosis had other features, suggesting either a 3rd cranial nerve palsy (pupillary dilatation, gaze palsy) or Horner's syndrome (pupillary constriction
, ipsilateral loss of sweating).
This explains why a unilateral light stimulus evokes a bilateral (direct and consensual) and symmetrical pupillary constriction
. Damage to this part of the pathway leads to light-near dissociation (where the near response is normal but the light response is defective).
Slit lamp examination showed segmental, vermiform movements of the affected pupil in all the 3 patients, with bunching up of the iris and no typical brisk pupillary constriction
. All extra ocular movements were normal.
The dynamic pupillometer averages pupillary size before pupillary constriction
, that is, during an initial latency period of approximately 200 milliseconds.
diminished blinking is a feature of the near response, just like pupillary constriction
, convergence and accommodation ...
Clear visualization is especially effective in the demonstration of pupillary constriction
in the first videotape.
If so, then there could be physiological anisocoria or a lesion affecting the sympathetic pathway, because pupillary constriction
controlled by the parasympathetic pathway is intact (the size of anisocoria will increase in darker light conditions).