The optical axis or pupillary axis
, normal to the vertex of the cornea, is slightly offset from the line of sight by about 5[degrees], and coincides with the location of the fovea on the retina.
Basically, what we want as eye care practitioners is to align the multifocal lens over the patient's line of sight--and not over the geometric centre of the cornea or the pupillary axis
. Certainly, this becomes relevant when it comes to multifocal intraocular lenses, but also in laser refractive surgery, it could be (or should be) of importance.
The pupillary axis
was considered to be the center of pupil after mydriasis.
The results from the previous study , obtained for vertically polarized wave at 1 GHz, showed similar distribution of the induced electric field along the pupillary axis in both compound and extracted eye models, as seen again in Figure 7(a), suggesting the usefulness of the extracted eye model in the initial EM exposure assessment.
The numerical results obtained using the hybrid FEM/BEM formulation showed similar distributions of the induced electric field along the pupillary axis in both the extracted and the compound eye models only in the case of 1 GHz vertically polarized wave.
Caption: Figure 7: Comparison of the induced electric field along the pupillary axis of the compound and the extracted eye models, respectively, (a) 1 GHz, both polarizations; (b) 1800 MHz, both polarizations.
Current indications for surgery was ocular discomfort (57.5%), for visual impairment (27.5%), and among them, two persons had grade IV pterygium with pupillary axis
An analysis of 132 images indicated that many people wear the device near or overlapping their pupillary axis
(a line perpendicular to the surface of the cornea, passing through the center of the pupil), which may induce scotomas and interfere with daily function.
Thus we assume that beam will propagate through all tissues along the eye pupillary axis resulting in absorption of laser energy according to absorption coefficient values of those same tissues.
Steady rise of the temperature along the eye pupillary axis can be seen on Figure 6 for three different values of ambient temperature.
The selected eyes were divided into two groups according to the reason for the lack of capsular support: (1) the open-globe-injury group (IOL implantation was performed at least 3 months after lens removal), which consisted of 15 eyes with penetrating injuries and four with ocular ruptures, (ocular scars or small tissue defects did not pass through the IOL vortex and the pupillary axis) and (2) the control group, which consisted of 2 eyes with Marfan syndrome and 26 eyes after successful vitrectomy surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
The pupillary axis was calculated as the line passing through the anterior corneal center of curvature and the center of the pupil.