For Treatments 2 and 3, third-instar larvae that escaped, pupated, or died were immediately replaced.
The experiment lasted for 80 d, until the last individual had pupated or died.
For both species, larvae that died during the course of the experiment were initially small, larvae that pupated were initially large, and larvae that survived as third instars were initially of intermediate body mass [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 8 OMITTED].
suzukii larvae pupated
with a single peak between 8:00 to 16:00, but most D.
basalis 3rd instar until the 3rd instars pupated; other steps were the same as Treatment I.
Such records were taken until the next molt, i.e., in Treatment #1 until all of the 1st instars had transformed into 2nd instars, in Treatment #2 until all of the 2nd instars had transformed into 3rd instars, and in Treatment #3 until all of the 3rd instars had pupated. The proportion of cannibalized larvae was calculated by dividing the number killed by the initial number of M.
Mean ([+ or -] SE) percentage of beet armyworm neonate larvae that successfully pupated
after being fed cotton tissue.
Most larvae (45 of 64) pupated under the paper that shaded the Petri dish harborages regardless of ant presence or identity, but the frequency of pupal location was non-random among the 3 ant treatments (Fisher's exact test P = 0.029).
Male larvae pupated at a significantly smaller mass than females but females tended to complete pupation faster.