Using a periungual puncture site
, pain was not referred by any subject, although a bothersome sensation was noted by some.
To estimate the technical feasibility of fiducial marker implantation, we recorded the number of puncture sites
required to place the fiducial markers, the number of fiducial marker per patient, and the time for fiducial marker implantation.
Some authors (Ahmed et al., 2006) suggest that, overall, PLPH management should be aimed at replacing the lost CSF, sealing the puncture site
, and controlling the cerebral vasodilatation.
In one exemplary case, the right FA was excised in the region of the puncture site
for photographic documentation.
There was no bleeding or haematoma formation at the right radial puncture site
. No further haematological intervention was needed.
Of course, frequent dialysis requires accessing the blood more often, which typically is done using a long-lasting puncture site
through which blood can be removed and returned.
Although number of attempts has limited correlation with the incidence of distal ischaemia (4), haematoma at the puncture site
has been associated with radial artery occlusion (3); hence we propose that a dynamic ultrasound-guided method should be used early when arterial cannulation is difficult.
However, the invasive transfemoral puncture approach can simultaneously incurs the risk of vascular complications, such as bleeding, hematoma at the puncture site
, distal embolization and arterial thrombosis (6, 7).
(9) In hairdressing the aetiology is the penetration of short, sharp hair clippings whilst in sheep shearing it is thought to be due to an initial puncture from grass seeds, thorns and burrs, found in the sheep's fleece, followed by wool fibres entering at the puncture site
. (1,6,8) It is a benign condition and many individuals are asymptomatic.
In terms of safety, major complications occurred in 2% of patients and included puncture site
hematoma and uterine artery dissection.
The patient experienced an initial loss of epithelium at the puncture site
where the hypodermic needles had been inserted, and hyperpigmentation developed at these spots.
Performing the arterial puncture: With expanding circular sweeps cleanse the skin at the puncture site
with the alcohol swab.