By the 1970s, punch cards
provided the backbone for these basic business functions.
Although a minority of voters used punch cards
, the Florida situation had demonstrated how just a few hundred votes can matter.
For example, in the eight California counties that used punch cards
in the 2002 gubernatorial election, 4.04 percent of votes were not counted--a worse performance than the 3.72 percent of votes not counted in those counties in 1998.
We now know that punch card
balloting is a terribly flawed technology.
New federal legislation authorizes more than $650 million in assistance to states to replace antiquated punch card
and lever voting machines.
"My grandfather worked for one of the larger paperstock dealers in Los Angeles, and my dad eventually began to service smaller computer punch card
accounts for them," remarks Jason Young.
The result is akin to a nanotech version of the venerable data processing 'punch card
' developed more than 110 years ago, but with two crucial differences: the 'Millipede' technology is re-writeable (meaning it can be used over and over again), and may be able to store more than 3 billion bits of data in the space occupied by just one hole in a standard punch card
Many of these suits allege that disproportionate use of punch card
voting equipment in communities of color violates the Constitution, the Voting Rights Act, and other state and federal laws.
Thankfully, though, we didn't get to see his punch card
voting machines are used in many election districts throughout the United States because of their relative low cost, ease of adaptation to long or multilingual ballots, and generation of more or less machine-readable permanent records.
Conclusion so far: "Punch card
balloting is out in Florida," Seibel quipped.
Also, many ballots had dimpled chads--little squares that did not fall out of the punch card
when voters chose a candidate.