Massive acute pulmonary embolism is now defined as sustained hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg for at least 15 min or requiring inotropic support not due to a cause other than PE such as arrhythmia, hypovolemia, sepsis or LV dysfunction), pulselessness
, or persistent profound bradycardia (heart rate 90 mmHg but with RV dysfunction or myocardial necrosis)26.
Hard and Soft Signs of Major Neck Injuries Hard Signs Soft Signs Vascular Expanding or pulsatile hematoma Active bleeding Shock Hypotension New bruit/thrill Nonpulsatile hematoma Pulselessness
Aerodigestive Airway compromise Subcutaneous emphysema Hematemesis Dyspnea Hemoptysis Dysphonia Stridor/hoarseness CNS/Spine Neurologic deficit Neurologic deficit Signs of stroke Table 3.
The animals were asphyxiated until simulated pulselessness
, defined as an aortic systolic pressure <30 mmHg, was observed.
Pain (severe and out of proportion) (9), pallor paresthesia, paralysis and pulselessness
(10) are the cardinal symptoms/signs of ACS.
The diagnoses were made with findings such as active hemorrhage, pulselessness
, and ischemia of the limbs.
The mnemonic of the six Ps of ACS outlines the signs and symptoms to be aware of: pain, pressure, paraesthesia/paralysis, pallor, poikilothermia and pulselessness
. However, these indicate a spectrum of compromise.
These include the presence of any one or more of the following 6 'Ps': pain, paraesthesia (or anaesthesia), paresis (or paralysis), pallor, pulselessness
, and poikilothermia ('perishing with the cold').
Kobayashi, "Takayasu arteritis--beyond pulselessness
," Internal Medicine, vol.
I used to teach, years ago, that the patient presents with 'four p's' - Pain, Pallor, Pulselessness
Upon the moment of pulselessness
, and during the waiting period until death is declared, the organs are deprived of oxygen, which begins to damage the organs, threatening their suitability for transplantation.
is uncommon and only seen in the late stages of ACS.