where A is the retropulsion amplitude (mm), n is the number of pulses, [epsilon] is the laser pulse energy (J), and [tau] is the laser pulse width
The slope of measurement signal was controlled to remove the ripple, in top side of measured signal pulse waveform, by monitoring pulse width
ratio [R.sub.PW], and thus this provided the optimum pulse width
Because the pulse generator has a 2 ns pulse width
, the spectrum of the pulse generator has a 500 MHz bandwidth and 24 GHz centre frequency, as shown in Fig.
Multibit envelope components are converted to the pulse widths
of the position-modulated carrier clock through the delay differences between the M- and 2M-stage delay lines and subsequent logic operations.
It is clearly found that microwave electromagnetic interference with 5 V at 5 GHz is unable to switch the output state of flip-flop 1 as the pulse width
is fixed at 2 ns, while the pulse width
of 4 ns presents a similar result as shown in Figure 5(b).
In Figure 3, the graph of the working gap for a pulse amplitude of 2750 mV and a pulse width
from 70 to 200 ns is shown.
(@) corresponding author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Table 1: Apparent flux for pulse train of different pulse widths
Drug flux Waveform (mg/[cm.sup.2]/s) 1s pulse width
0.0015 2s pulse width
0.0009 4s pulse width
0.007 0.25 with 1s interval of no current 0.0006 " Passive 0.0002 Table 2: Waveform Drug flux (mg/[cm.sup.2]/s) 1s pulse width
4.90e-5 2s pulse width
4.21e-5 4s pulse width
4.00e-5 0.25 with 1s interval of no current 3.39e-5 " Passive 1.20e-5
Pulse amplitude was programmed to 2.5V and pulse width
was left unchanged.
The duty cycle of a radar is the ratio of the pulse width
to the pulse interval.
By accepting the limited ranges on pulse widths
, staying with the fixed 20:1 forward:reverse time ratio, and limiting the pulse waves to just the basic forward then reverse and repeat wave form, testing could be done quickly on a relatively small number of boards.
The valve may be controlled using DC current, open- or closed-loop control, or pulse width
modulation (PWM), to cover a broad range of applications.
The algorithm determines pulse width
and position variation with respect to the length of the data marks and surrounding spaces, ensuring a uniform thermal profile during the post recording cooling process.