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the speed or frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time, population, or other standard of comparison.
adjusted rate a fictitious summary rate statistically adjusted to remove the effect of a variable, such as age or sex, to permit unbiased comparison between groups having different compositions with respect to these variables. See also crude rate and specific rate.
attack rate in the analysis of acute outbreaks of disease, the proportion of persons who are exposed to the disease during the outbreak who do become ill.
basal metabolic rate an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject. Abbreviated BMR.
birth rate the number of live births in a geographic area in a defined period, usually one year, relative to some specified population. For the crude birth rate, it is the average total population or the midyear population in the area during the period. Specific birth rates for subsets of the population may also be calculated, for example, an age-specific birth rate is limited to the population of females of a defined age range.
case fatality rate the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared to the total number of cases of the disease.
crude rate one giving the total number of events occurring in an entire population over a period of time, without reference to any of the individuals or subgroups within the population. See also adjusted rate and specific rate.
death rate the number of deaths in a certain period of time divided by the total of a given population. The crude death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths in a geographic area in one year divided by the average population in the area during the year. The age-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths occurring in a specified age group to the average population of that group. The cause-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths due to a specified cause to the average total population. Called also mortality rate.
DEF rate an expression of dental caries experienced in primary teeth, calculated by adding number of those requiring filling (D), decayed teeth requiring extraction (E), and those that have already been successfully filled (F); missing primary teeth are not included in the calculation.
DMF rate an expression of the condition of the permanent teeth based on the number of teeth decayed, missing (or indicated for removal), and filled or bearing restorations. It is calculated by adding the number of carious permanent teeth requiring filling (D), carious ones requiring extraction (Mr), ones previously extracted because of caries (Mp), and permanent teeth (F).
dose rate the amount of any therapeutic agent administered per unit of time.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
fatality rate the death rate in a specific group of persons simultaneously affected by some event or circumstances, such as a natural disaster.
fertility rate a measure of fertility in a defined population over a specified period of time, usually one year; particularly the general fertility rate, but also including more specific rates such as those for females of a given parity or a particular age range or that describing the completed rate for females who have finished childbearing.
fetal death rate the ratio of the number of fetal deaths in one year to the total number of both live births and fetal deaths in that year.
five-year survival rate an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of a given disease five years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the disease.
flow rate flow (def. 2).
forced expiratory flow rate forced expiratory flow.
general fertility rate the most widely used measure of fertility; the number of live births in a geographic area in a year per 1000 women of childbearing age, which is usually defined as age 15 to 44 years.
glomerular filtration rate an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g., inulin or creatinine.
growth rate an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
heart rate the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time (usually per minute).
incidence rate the risk of developing a particular disease during a given period of time; the numerator of the rate is the number of new cases during the specified time period and the denominator is the population at risk during the period. Compare prevalence r.
infant mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than one year of age to the number of live births in that year.
intrinsic rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the heart rate unaided by an artificial pacemaker, expressed in beats per minute (bpm). See also cycle length.
maternal mortality rate a rate in which the numerator is the number of maternal deaths ascribed to puerperal causes in one year; the number of live births in that year is often used as the denominator, although to make a true rate the denominator should be the number of pregnancies (live births plus fetal deaths). Called also puerperal mortality rate.
maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR) maximal expiratory flow.
maximal midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) maximal midexpiratory flow.
mendelian rate an expression of the numerical relations of the occurrence of distinctly contrasted mendelian characteristics in succeeding generations of hybrid offspring.
metabolic rate an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
mortality rate death rate.
neonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than 28 days of age to the number of live births in that year.
paced rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the rate of pulses of an artificial pacemaker, expressed as pulses per minute (ppm). See also cycle length.
perinatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of the sum of fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) and deaths of infants less than 7 days of age in one time period and population to the sum of the number of live births and fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) in that same time period and population.
postneonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in a given year of children between the 28th day of life and the first birthday relative to the difference between the number of the live births and neonatal deaths in that year; the denominator is sometimes simplified, less correctly, to the number of live births. The ratio is sometimes approximated as the difference between the infant mortality rate and the neonatal mortality rate.
prevalence rate the number of people in a population who have a disease at a given time; the numerator is the number of existing cases of disease at a specified time and the denominator is the total population. Time may be a point or a defined interval, and is traditionally the former if unspecified. Compare incidence r.
puerperal mortality rate maternal mortality r.
pulse rate the rate of the pulse, measured as number of pulsations in an artery per unit of time; normally between 60 and 80 per minute in an adult.
respiration rate the number of inhalations and exhalations per unit of time, usually measured by observation of chest movements and averaging 16 to 20 per minute in an adult.
sedimentation rate the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge; see also erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
slew rate in cardiac pacing, the rate, expressed in units of mV/msec, at which an R wave reaches peak amplitude; it represents the maximum rate of change of amplifier output voltage.
specific rate a rate that applies to a specific demographic subgroup, e.g., individuals of a specific age, sex, or race, giving the total number of events in relation only to that subgroup. See also adjusted rate and crude rate.
stillbirth rate fetal death rate.
rate of the pulse as observed in an artery; recorded as beats per minute.
Etymology: L, pulsare + reri, to calculate
the number of pulse beats per minute, normally the same as the heart rate. The normal pulse rate in an average adult varies from 60 to 80 beats/min, with fluctuations occurring with exercise, injury, illness, and emotional reactions. The average pulse rate for a newborn is 120 beats/min, which slows throughout childhood and adolescence. At about 12 years of age, females begin to have a higher pulse rate than males.
pulse rate(pŭls rāt)
Rate of the pulse as observed in an artery; recorded as beats per minute. Normally, it is the same as the heart rate.
1. a rhythmic wave.
2. any leguminous seed used in animal feed or human food. Contain about 20% protein.
3. the beat of the heart as felt through the walls of arteries. What is felt is not the blood pulsing through the arteries but a shock wave, generated by the abrupt ejection of blood from the heart, that travels along the arteries. The arterial pulse wave can be measured by a sphygmograph. The resulting tracing shows ascending and descending limbs.
that over the abdominal aorta.
includes irregularity of timing and amplitude, large or small amplitude, waterhammer pulse, Corrigan's pulse, dropped pulse, pulse deficit, alternating pulse and many others.
pulsus alternans; one with regular alteration of weak and strong beats without changes in cycle length.
indicative of arterial blood pressure; estimated on the difference of pressure exerted by the fingers to occlude and then reopen the arterial pulse.
one in which the ascending limb of the tracing shows a transient drop in amplitude, or a notch.
one in which the ascending limb of the tracing shows two small additional waves or notches.
one in which the ascending limb of the tracing shows three small additional waves or notches.
the wave of pressure generated by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta. Although the size (amplitude) of the pulse depends on the volume ejected it is not the blood passing the finger that is palpated, it is only the pressure wave. The pulse is a good indicator of the heart's activity with respect to amplitude, rate and regularity. It may also provide information on the state of the vessel walls and the efficiency of the aortic semilunar valves. It may be palpated in the median, facial, femoral or coccygeal arteries, the preferred site varying with the species and the occasion.
atrial venous pulse
atriovenous pulse, a cervical pulse having an accentuated 'a' wave during atrial systole, owing to increased force of contraction of the right atrium; a characteristic of tricuspid stenosis.
B-B shot pulse
see water-hammer pulse (below).
one in which two beats occur in rapid succession, the groups of two being separated by a longer interval, usually related to regularly occurring ventricular premature beats.
to study the movement of macromolecules, cells are incubated with a radiolabeled precursor (pulse) and then replaced with unlabeled precursor (chase). The label can be followed as it is incorporated into newly synthesized compounds and through different cellular compartments.
see corrigan's pulse.
the difference between the apical pulse and the radial pulse. Obtained by counting apical beats as heard through a stethoscope over the heart and counting the arterial pulse at the same time. A characteristic of several arrhythmias.
a pulse characterized by two peaks, the second peak occurring in diastole and being an exaggeration of the dicrotic wave.
the administration of drugs, usually antibiotics or corticosteroids, in a single, large dose which might be repeated after an interval of days. Thought to have the advantage of high tissue levels and fewer of the undesirable side-effects associated with more frequent dosing.
that which is located at the site where the femoral artery passes through the groin in the femoral triangle; the usual site for palpating the pulse in dogs and cats.
fetal pulse detector
an ultrasound detector based on the Doppler principle used to detect the presence of a living fetus in utero.
the arterial tide in the umbilical cord.
the power source for a cardiac pacemaker system, usually powered by a lithium battery. It supplies electrical impulses to the implanted electrodes. See also pacemaker.
one characterized by high tension.
see water-hammer pulse (below).
comprises the movements of the wall of the jugular vein in response to pressure changes in the right atrium. Much more visible if the vein is distended. A reflection of increased pressure in the right atrium or insufficiency of the right A-V valve. A small pulse is normal in most food animals. A large pulse which goes high up the neck when the head is in the normal position, and which is synchronous with the heart cycle and is systolic in time, indicates insufficiency of the right atrioventricular valve.
a pulse detector which uses the Doppler principle.
one that markedly decreases in amplitude during inspiration.
that palpable in the extremities, e.g. legs, neck and head; the usual sites for measuring the pulse rate.
one in which the arteries are subject to sudden distention and collapse.
the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
that felt over the radial artery.
the number of pulsations per minute palpable in an artery, usually of a limb. The normal rates per minute for the common domestic animal species are: horses, 30 to 40; young horses up to one year of age, 70 to 80; cattle, 60 to 80; young calves, 100 to 120; sheep and goats, 70 to 120; pigs (heart rate), 60 to 70; dogs, 100 to 130; cats, 110 to 140; adult fowls 250 to 300.
regularity of the pulse in time and amplitude.
one that is very fine and barely perceptible.
one with a pause after every third beat.
one giving the sensation of successive waves.
a slow pulse.
the pulsation over a vein.
one in which the artery is suddenly and markedly distended and relaxed. Characteristic of patent ductus arteriosus. Called also Corrigan's, jerky and B-B shot pulse.
a small, tense pulse.