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The vital capacity and its components are measured using a spirometer, which measures the volumes of air inhaled and exhaled. The functional residual capacity is usually measured by the helium dilution method using a closed spirometry system. A known amount of helium is introduced into the system at the end of a normal quiet exhalation. When the helium equilibrates throughout the volume of the system, which is equal to the FRC plus the volume of the spirometer and tubing, the FRC is determined from the helium concentration. This test may underestimate the FRC of patients with emphysema. The FRC can be determined quickly and more accurately by body plethysmography. The residual volume and total lung capacity are determined from the functional reserve capacity.
pulmonaryadjective Referring to lungs.
anthraxGreek, anthrax, a burning coal, charbon, milzbrand Infectious disease An often fatal bacterial infection which occurs when Bacillus anthracis endospores, primarily of grazing herbivore–cattle, sheep, horses, mules–origin enter via skin abrasions, inhalation, or orally Pathogenesis Anthrax endospores germinate within macrophages, become vegetative bacteria, multiply within the lymphatics, enter the bloodstream and cause massive septicemia Clinical URI-like symptoms, followed by high fever, vomiting, joint pain, SOB, internal and external hemorrhage, hypotension, meningitis, pulmonary edema, shock sudden death; intestinal anthrax is caused by ingestion of contaminated meat; cutaneous anthrax is rare Diagnosis ELISA for capsule antigens–95+% senstivity, for protective antigen–72% sensitivity; detection of exotoxins in blood is unreliable Prevention Prophylaxis–6 wks with doxycycline or ciprofloxacin; vaccination, with anthrax vaccine absorbed; decontamination with aerosolized formalin Management Penicillin, doxycycline; if allergic to penicillin, chloramaphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin See Bacillus anthracis, Cutaneous anthrax, Industrial anthrax, Inhalation anthrax.
Anthrax, clinical forms
- Almost universally fatal–due to inhalation of anthrax spores which germinate and produce toxins resulting in pleural effusions, hemorrhage, cyanosis, SOB, stridor, shock, death
- Anthrax pneumonia, inhalational anthrax, pulmonary anthrax An almost universally fatal form due to inhalation of 1 to 2 µm pathogenic endospores which are deposited in alveoli, engulfed by macrophages and germinate en route to the mediastinal and peribronchial lymph nodes, produce toxins Clinical Mediastinal widening, pleural effusions, fever, nonproductive cough, myalgia, malaise, hemorrhage, cyanosis, SOB, stridor, shock, death, often accompanied by mesenteric lymphadenitis, diffuse abdominal pain, fever
- Once common among handlers of infected animals, eg farmers, woolsorters, tanners, brushmakers and carpetmakers in an era when brushes were from animals Clinical Carbuncle–a cluster of boils, that later ulcerates, resulting in a hard black center surrounded by bright red inflammation; rare cases which become systemic are almost 100% fatal
- After ingesting contaminated meat–2 to 5 days; once ingested spores germinate, causing ulceration, hemorrhagic and necrotizing gastroenteritis Clinical Fever, diffuse abdominal pain with rebound tenderness, melanic stools, vomit, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, shock; death is due to intestinal perforation or anthrax toxemia
- Uncommon, follows ingestion of contaminated meat Clinical Cervical edema, lymphadenopathy–causing dysphagia, respiratory difficulty
- Anthrax meningitis
- A rare, usually fatal complication of GI or inhalation anthrax with death occurring 1 to 6 days after onset of illness Clinical Meningeal symptoms, nuchal rigidity, fever, fatigue, myalgia, headache, N&V, agitation, seizures, delirium, followed by neurologic degeneration and death
Synonym(s): pneumonic (1) , pulmonic.
pulmonaryPertaining to the lungs.
pulmonaryrelating to the lungs.
Patient discussion about Pulmonary
Q. LUNG CANCER how do you get it?
Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and the earlier you started smoking, the greater your risk of lung cancer. High levels of pollution, radiation and asbestos exposure may also increase risk. Lately researchers connect this lung cancer with genetic factors.
for more information please check this link :
Q. How much do I have to smoke to get lung cancer? If I only smoke 1 cigarette a day will I get cancer?
Q. Heart serious, Lungs swollen. My brother Bennet, seventeen, and it is birthday tomorrow. But I guess he already got his seventeenth birthday present: lupus. He is recently diagnosed with lupus, yet some complications are still under-diagnosed. He have always had huge aspirations. Now, as my health deterioates at a weird rate, he can't walk around. His heart is in serious condition, his lungs are swollen, so are his joints. His voice is almost not there and he is, thinking about his eighteenth birthday. His face is swollen, as some gland in his neck has bloated and somehow he don't enjoy what he see in the mirror he says. He is very sensitive to sunlight and so he stay in for all day and when he decide to go out, it is after 8 or 9 p.m. He is despondent, yes. Because he see his dreams shattering, his family life is breaking apart and he feels as if he is getting more useless EVERY single day. How long will he continue? Maybe another thirty years...maybe not another day. Could anyone help him to SURV
With sunlight bothering him, that is called photophobia and is a symptom of certain types of lupus, or can be an effect from a medication he may be taking. The swelling on his neck may be due to hyperthyroidism, asthma, or an allergic reaction perhaps to prednisone, which is given to lupus patients.
You should get your bother to see a doctor soon, if you have not already. You don't want him to stop breathing or anything.