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Although pulmonary actinomycosis is thought to be more prevalent in developing countries, data from developing countries are scanty.
sup][1] The human form of actinomycosis was first described in 1857, [sup][2] while pulmonary actinomycosis was described 25 years later, accounting for 15%-20% of the total burden of actinomycosis.
Pulmonary actinomycosis probably results from aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastrointestinal secretions into the respiratory tract.
The incidence of pulmonary actinomycosis has declined in recent years in developed countries as a result of better oral hygiene and susceptibility to a broad range of antibiotics.
Patients with the diagnosis of pulmonary actinomycosis at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2003 to December 2014 were searched, and those fulfilling the following inclusion criteria were included in this study: (1) Pulmonary parenchymal abnormality on CT; and (2a) histopathological identification of actinomycosis from the tissues obtained by lung resection, percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy, or bronchial biopsy; or (2b) culture of aseptic tissue, including lung tissue or pleural effusion; or (2c) histopathological identification of actinomycosis from expectorated mucus plug and remission achieved after therapy aiming at actinomycosis.
9,24) Melgarejo Moreno et al (19) described the case of a woman with diabetes who presented with a 2-month history of hoarseness and cough, and Fernandez (24) reported the case of a 30-year-old woman with an actinomycotic lesion of the vocal fold and secondary pulmonary actinomycosis.
Pulmonary actinomycosis presenting as a mass-like consolidation.
Pulmonary actinomycosis usually results from aspiration of infected material containing actinomyces.
64) Segmental consolidations that contain low-attenuation areas with peripheral enhancement and adjacent pleural thickening suggest pulmonary actinomycosis.
Besides all these risk factors, our case suggests that epilepsy may be taken as a risk factor for pulmonary actinomycosis [2].
Thereby, the histopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary actinomycosis was achieved after diagnostic thoracotomy.
If the patient is an alcoholic or has poor oral hygiene, facial trauma, dental disease or underlying respiratory disorders such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis, then clinicians must be alert for signs of pulmonary actinomycosis.

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