But they required special medical intervention that went beyond the scope of psychoprophylaxis. (22) The aim of the method was not to deal with pathological cases but rather to eliminate pain for the vast majority of women.
Second, since words produced material effects, psychoprophylaxis endeavored to sanitize language of all sources of fear and create a calm, cultured environment for women to give birth.
(86) Nikolaev compared data collected before the introduction of psychoprophylaxis and after to find a decrease in the number of toxicosis cases (3.6 percent instead of 6.5 percent).
Velvovsky et al., eds., Painless Childbirth through Psychoprophylaxis: Lectures for Obstetricians (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1960), 163-65, Vel'vovskii's book was published in Russian in 1954 and translated into English in 1960.
Pavlov's Teaching on the Higher Nervous Activity," in Painless Childbirth through Psychoprophylaxis, 38.
(49) Velvovsky et al., Painless Childbirth through Psychoprophylaxis, 234-38, 41.
(52) Vel'vovskii, Ploticher, and Shugom, "Psikhoprofilakticheskoe obezbolivanie rodov," 11; Velvovsky et al., Painless Childbirth through Psychoprophylaxis, 330.
The International Childbirth Education Association and the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis
in Obstetrics (ASPO-Lamaze) both proposed that childbearing women take more responsibility for their births in response, among other things, to revelations about cruelty in the maternity wards (Edwards and Waldorf, 1984).
ASPO (the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis
in Obstetrics) is the original Lamaze organization, founded by Elizabeth Bing (whose 80th birthday was celebrated at this conference).