Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Types of psoriasis
- joint discomfort, swelling, stiffness, or throbbing
- swelling in the toes and ankles
- pain in the digits, lower back, wrists, knees, and ankles
- eye inflammation or pink eye (conjunctivitis)
Causes and symptoms
- family history
- exposure to cold temperatures
- injury, illness, or infection
- steroids and other medications
- Capsaicin (Capsicum frutecens), an ointment that can stop production of the chemical that causes the skin to become inflamed and halts the runaway production of new skin cells. Capsaicin is available without a prescription, but should be used under a doctor's supervision to prevent burns and skin damage.
- Hydrocortisone creams, topical ointments containing a form of vitamin D called calcitriol, and coal-tar shampoos and ointments can relieve symptoms. Hydrocortisone creams have been associated with such side effects as folliculitis (inflammation of the hair follicles), while coal-tar preparations have been associated with a heightened risk of skin cancer.
- Soaking in warm water and German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) or bathing in warm salt water.
- Drinking as many as three cups a day of hot tea made with one or a combination of the following herbs: burdock (Arctium lappa) root, dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) root, Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium), sarsaparilla (Smilax officinalis), and balsam pear (Momardica charantia).
- Taking two 500-mg capsules of evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) a day. Pregnant women should not use evening primrose oil, and patients with liver disease or high cholesterol should use it only under a doctor's supervision.
- Eating a diet that includes plenty of fish, turkey, celery (for cleansing the kidneys), parsley, lettuce, lemons (for cleansing the liver), limes, fiber, and fruit and vegetable juices.
- Eating a diet that eliminates animal products high in saturated fats, since they promote inflammation.
- Drinking plenty of water (at least eight glasses) each day.
- Taking nutritional supplements including folic acid, lecithin, vitamin A (specific for the skin), vitamin E, selenium, and zinc.
- Regularly imagining clear, healthy skin.
- psoriasis symptoms appear or reappear after treatment
Any body surface can be affected, but lesions appear most often on the scalp, knees, and elbows. Sometimes the nails are affected, causing pitting and scaling of the base, or ridging and furrowing with an alteration in transparency. Emotional response to the persistence and cosmetically disfiguring effects can be severe. Psoriasis can occur in either sex at any age, but is most often seen in persons 15 to 35 years of age. It affects about 2 per cent of white adults and is less common in blacks and Asians. About 10 per cent of patients have arthritis associated with their psoriasis (psoriatic arthritis). The cause is not known; psoriasis is not an infectious disease and cannot be transmitted from one person to another. Recent research has established that it is an immune-mediated disorder. It tends to occur in families; about one third of the cases are believed to be related to a hereditary factor. Skin injury (such as from scratching or surgery) or inflammation (as from overexposure to ultraviolet light) can lead to the development of more lesions. Certain drugs are known to exacerbate psoriasis. Early attacks respond well to treatment, only to reappear within weeks or months. Complete and permanent remission is rare.
Extensive information about psoriasis can be obtained from the National Psoriasis Foundation, 6600 S.W. 92nd Ave., Suite 300, Portland, OR 97223 (telephone 800-723-9166).
pso·ri·a·sis(sō-rī'ă-sis), Do not confuse this word with sauriasis or siriasis.
psoriasis/pso·ri·a·sis/ (sor-i´ah-sis) a chronic, hereditary, recurrent dermatosis marked by discrete vivid red macules, papules, or plaques covered with silvery lamellated scales.psoriat´ic
psoriasisPlaque psoriasis Dermatology A common–± 3 million, US–chronic hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin disorder, characterized by erythematous papules that coalesce, forming plaques with sharply demarcated borders; removal of a 'virgin' yellow-white lesion results in pinpoint hemorrhage–Auspitz' sign; trauma may evoke lesions on new body sites–Koebner's phenomenon; lesions are prominent on scalp, knees, elbows, umbilicus, genitalia Exacerbation Injury–solar, mechanical, infection– β-hemolytic streptococcus, HIV, drugs–ACE inhibitors, lithium, antimalarials, indomethacin Risk factors Injury or irritation–cuts, burns, rash, insect bites, immunosuppression–eg, AIDS, chemotherapy for cancer, Pts with autoimmune disorders, certain medications, viral or bacterial infections, alcoholism, obesity, lack of sunlight, sunburn, stress, cold climate, friction on skin Management Symptomatic–emollients, keratolytics, topicals– anthralin, corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues, phototherapy–ie, UV light exposure–natural sunlight, artificial UVB light, photochemotherapy– methoxsalen + UVA light, PUVA therapy, oral agents–eg, cyclosporine, etretinate, MTX, calcipotriene
psoriasis(sŏ-rī′ă-sĭs ) [Gr. psōriasis, itching]
Although psoriasis may begin at any time of life, the most common age of onset is between 10 and 40. Sudden onset may occur related to HIV. The condition has relapses and partial remissions, but established lesions often persist for many months or years. Flare-ups may be related to specific systemic and environmental factors or may be unpredictable. About 5% of patients also develop an inflammatory arthritis (commonly affecting fingers and toes or sacroiliac joints), and patients with psoriasis have an increased rate of inflammatory bowel disease.
Although the cause of psoriasis is unknown, some evidence suggests that immune dysregulation contributes to excessive proliferation of skin. Families with psoriasis have been found to have a significantly higher-than-normal incidence of certain human leukocyte antigens. Genetic studies show that about one third of affected patients have a family history of the disease. Emotional stress, skin trauma, cold weather, infections, and some drugs may trigger attacks.
The disease has no cure, and all treatments are palliative. Topical corticosteroids, coal tar derivatives, vitamin D3 analogs (e.g., calcipotriene), retinoids (e.g., etretinate, tacarotene), ultraviolet light exposure, and saltwater immersion are among the many methods that have been used effectively to treat this condition. For severe disease, immune-modulating drugs like methotrexate or cyclosporine sometimes are used, with close monitoring to prevent side effects.
CAUTION!Many treatments for psoriasis carry some risk for the patient. Etretinate, for example, produces fetal abnormalities and should never be used by women of childbearing age. Phototherapy with ultraviolet light increases the risk of developing many types of skin cancer. Patients receiving PUVA therapy must wear goggles during treatments, stay out of the sun on treatment days, and protect their eyes with UVA-screening sunglasses for 24 hr after the therapy. Use of methotrexate use requires regular monitoring of liver function, renal function, complete blood counts, and lung function.
The nurse teaches the patient about the prescribed therapy, to soften and remove scales, to relieve pruritus, to reduce pain and discomfort, to retard rapid cell proliferation, and to help induce remission and monitors for adverse reactions. Assistance is provided to help the patient gain confidence in managing these largely palliative treatments, many of which require special instructions for application and removal. The patient should protect against and minimize trauma. The patient's ability to manage therapies and their results are evaluated. The patient learns to identify stressors that exacerbate the condition, and to avoid and reduce these as much as possible. If the patient smokes cigarettes, participation in a smoking cessation program is recommended. The nurse helps the young patient (aged 20 to 30) to deal with body image changes and effects on self-esteem, encourages the patient to verbalize feelings, and supports the patient through loss of body image and associated grief. Psychological problems often occur. Referral for psychological counseling or cosmetic concealment therapy may be necessary. Patients and their families should be referred to the National Psoriasis Foundation and its local chapters for information and support. (800-723-9166; www.psoriasis.org)
psoriasisA common skin disease featuring obvious, dull red or salmon-pink, oval, thickened patches covered with silvery scales. These may occur anywhere on the body and vary greatly in number. It affects about 2 percent of the UK population. The cause is multifactorial involving genetic predisposition, skin injury, infections, drugs leading to inflammatory infoltrates of the skin and epidermal hyperproliferation. The condition may be complicated by ARTHRITIS. Psoriasis is treated by exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light, vitamin D3 analogues, COAL TAR, dithranol, corticosteroid ointments or the CYTOTOXIC drug METHOTREXATE.
psoriasisa noncontagious disease of the skin marked by scaly red patches, due probably to a disorder of the immune system.
psoriasischronic skin condition, characterized by circumscribed, discrete and confluent, crimson red, silver-scaled, plaque-like inflammatory skin lesions, affecting 2% of population; exacerbated by stress, drugs (e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, lithium, alcohol, hydroxyquinoline), streptococcal infections, and trauma (due to Koebner phenomenon); plaques show local epidermal thickening, hypervascularity, abnormality of T-lymphocyte function, proliferation and altered differentiation of keratinocytes and parakeratosis; lesions characteristically affect extensor surfaces, scalp and trunk; nails become dystrophic, showing onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis and thimble pitting; small joints of hands and feet may develop psoriatic arthropathy; treated by systemic cytotoxic drugs (e.g. methotrexate, ciclosporin, azathioprine, efalizumab, hydroxycarbamide) and acitretin or topical applications, e.g. emollients, for mild presentations; coal tar ointments and balms; vitamin D analogue ointment (e.g. calcipotriol); dithranol, phototherapy (using ultraviolet B), photochemotherapy (using psoralens and long-wave ultraviolet light [PUVA])
guttate psoriasis widely scattered, multiple psoriatic lesions; distribution resembles raindrops on a dry pavement; characteristically develops after streptococcal throat infection
pustular psoriasis formation of sterile ‘pustules’ often of plantar skin; associated with generalized psoriasis
Patient discussion about psoriasis
Q. Is psoriasis infectious? Last week I and my friends from high-school went to the pool. One of my friend has psoriasis on his back, and when the lifeguard noticed it he asked him to leave the pool because he has skin disease that may spread to the other people swimming in the pool. We told him it is psoriasis and not some fungus, but he told us that psoriasis is also infectious. Is that true? Can psoriasis infect people who come in touch with people with psoriasis? Can I go swimming with him or should be more cautious?
Q. Is psoriasis contagious? My wife got psoriasis and I don’t want to get infected…
You may read more here:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psoriasis#Types_of_psoriasis
Q. What kind of health complications I should expect if I have Psoriasis? i recently was diagnosed with Plaque Psoriasis- will it affect other organs in my body? Are there any complications I should worry about?