One task in which unrelated pseudoword
pairs and pseudoword
pairs related through equivalence were presented, and one with real words presented in pairs of related and unrelated words.
In fact, there is scarce evidence that irrelevant speech may be associated with interference-by-content in phonological WM, for example, by disrupting the representation of a single verbal stimulus (e.g., a word or a pseudoword
) rather than of a sequence of stimuli.
 Individual Achievement Test II Pseudoword
Decoding, Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, Digit Span test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Coding Test, Contingency Naming Test, Delis Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test, California Verbal Learning Test-Child version or II, WMI-6th edition, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Matrix Reasoning, Grooved Pegboard Test Authors Impaired cognitive domains Impairment rate Banwell and Language, visuomotor Anderson  integration, verbal and visual memory, information processing speed, working memory and executive functions, general cognition MacAllister Complex attention receptive 35% et al.
The test consists of sheets with figures, accompanied by a written element (which can be a word written correctly, a word written incorrectly, a pseudoword
or a word spelled correctly but which does not correspond to the figure it is associated with).
An additional pseudoword
reading test with words based on the characters trained in FonoMix was used.
The prime was presented for 250 ms followed by the target word (word or a pseudoword
) presented for 2 s.
correctly spelled received 1 point (internal consistency: alpha = .81).
Therefore, in order to look at possible effects of the orthographic similarity between primes and targets, the responses to pseudoword
targets were analysed.
The Word Reading Task (WRT) and the Pseudoword
Reading Task (PWRT) are Reading Aloud instruments each consisting of 88 words and 88 pseudowords
printed on an A4 page, font Ariel size 14 (Pinheiro, 2013).
The participants were required to decide if the word was a true word or a pseudoword
, and then to press the key corresponding to the correct category with their right index finger.
Recombinative reading derived from pseudoword
instruction in a miniature linguistic system.
According to the literature, some factors that influence error production during the reading and writing learning process include (1) word familiarity (Dias & Avila, 2008; Pinheiro, 2001; Pinheiro, Lucio & Silva, 2008; Pinheiro & Rothe-Neves, 2001; Salles & Parente, 2002, 2007; Stivanin & Scheuer, 2007), measured by the frequency with which the word occurs in the learner's environment or when he/ she is exposed to a specific text, varying from zero (pseudoword
) to very frequent words; (2) word size (Pinheiro, 2001; Pinheiro, Lucio & Silva, 2008), measured by quantity of letters, with longer words (regular or non-words) resulting in greater 'processing' time during reading and/ or more errors in 5th grade children, which are considered efficient readers.