pseudomembranous colitis


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colitis

 [ko-li´tis]
inflammation of the colon. There are many types of colitis, each with different etiologies; the differential diagnosis involves the clinical history, stool examinations, sigmoidoscopy, and radiologic studies such as a lower gastrointestinal series. One of the most common types is idiopathic ulcerative colitis, which is characterized by extensive ulcerations along the mucosa and submucosa of the bowel. Other types often can be traced to such etiologic factors as bacteria and viruses, drugs such as antibiotics, and radiation from x-rays or radioactive materials. Strong emotions can cause hypermotility of the gut and thereby produce symptoms typical of colitis. True colitis should be distinguished from irritable bowel syndrome (formerly referred to by other names such as mucous colitis, irritable colon, and spastic colon); in the latter condition there is no actual inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Almost all forms of colitis cause lower abdominal pain, bleeding from the bowel, and diarrhea. The patient may have as many as 20 bowel movements a day, resulting in serious depletion of body fluids and electrolytes. Treatment is aimed at eliminating or mitigating the underlying cause of the inflammatory process, resting and soothing the inflamed bowel, and restoring the nutritional status and fluid and electrolyte balance to normal.
antibiotic-associated colitis colitis associated with antimicrobial therapy, most commonly with lincomycin or clindamycin, but also with other broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as ampicillin and tetracycline. It can range from mild nonspecific colitis and diarrhea to severe fulminant pseudomembranous colitis with profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. The inflammation may be caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile, a microorganism that is normally present in the resident bowel flora of infants, but is rarely found in adults. Presumably, the disruption of the normal flora allows the growth of C. difficile.
collagenous colitis a type of colitis of unknown etiology characterized by deposits of collagenous material beneath the epithelium of the colon, with crampy abdominal pain and watery diarrhea.
Crohn's colitis Crohn's disease.
diversion colitis inflammation in a nonfunctioning colonic pouch created by corrective surgery; it resolves following restoration of intestinal continuity.
ischemic colitis acute vascular insufficiency of the colon, usually involving the portion supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery; symptoms include pain at the left iliac fossa, bloody diarrhea, low-grade fever, abdominal distention, and abdominal tenderness. The classic radiologic sign is thumbprinting, due to localized elevation of the mucosa by submucosal hemorrhage or edema. Ulceration may follow.
pseudomembranous colitis a severe acute inflammation of the bowel mucosa, with the formation of pseudomembranous plaques; it is usually associated with antimicrobial therapy (antibiotic-associated colitis). The common symptoms are watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. The pathologic lesions are yellow-green pseudomembranous plaques of mucinous inflammatory exudate distributed in patches over the colonic mucosa and sometimes also in the small intestine. Called also pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
radiation colitis colitis resulting from radiation therapy to the abdominal region; it is manifested clinically by tenesmus, pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and telangiectases. Malabsorption, ulceration, and partial or complete obstruction may follow.
ulcerative colitis see ulcerative colitis.

pseu·do·mem·bra·nous en·ter·o·co·li·tis

enterocolitis with the formation and passage of pseudomembranous material in the stools; occurs most commonly as a sequel to antibiotic therapy; caused by a necrolytic exotoxin made by Clostridium difficile.

pseudomembranous colitis

Antibiotic-associated colitis, necrotizing colitis GI disease An acute illness, with often severe diarrhea that follows antibiotic therapy with ampicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole, etc, which eliminate the Pt's native bacterial flora, resulting in superinfection by Clostridium difficile, causing most cases of PC; the condition may occur in compromised hosts or the elderly, in a background of colonic obstruction, leukemia, major surgery, uremia, spinal injury, colon CA, burns, infections, shock, heavy metal poisoning, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, ischemia, Crohn's disease, shigellosis, necrotizing enterocolitis, Hirschsprung's disease Clinical Sx range from asymptomatic, to mild diarrhea and abdominal pain, to fulminant colitis with fever, ↑ WBC, vomiting, dehydration, perforation, peritonitis, shock

pseu·do·mem·bra·nous en·ter·o·co·li·tis

(sū'dō-mem'bră-nŭs en'tĕr-ō-kŏ-lī'tis)
Intestinal inflammation with the formation and passage of pseudomembranous material, due to infection by Clostridium difficile; it is commonly a sequel to prolonged antibiotic therapy.
Synonym(s): pseudomembranous colitis, pseudomembranous enteritis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Identification of Clostridium difficile as a cause of pseudomembranous colitis. Br Med J.
Clostridium difficile and the etiology of pseudomembranous colitis. Lancet 1978; 1 : 1063-6.
Pseudomembranous colitis: association with antibiotics and therapy with cholestyramine.
However, in 1978, Clostridium difficile and its toxins were identified as the principle causative agents of post-antibiotic pseudomembranous colitis (S.
difficile infection, which can include life-threatening diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, by inducing a functional antibody response capable of neutralizing the two main disease-causing toxins produced by C.
Clostridium difficile is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients [1] and is the primary infectious cause of pseudomembranous colitis [2].
A special type of infectious colitis is pseudomembranous colitis following antibiotics use, or previously called antibiotics colitis." Pseudomembranous colitis is a descriptive term for colitides defined by the presence of pseudomembranes on the colonic or, rarely, small intestinal mucosa.
The organism has been implicated in 90% of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) and 20-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea (AAD).M The main virulence factors of the pathogenic C.
difficile-associated disease, which can include life-threatening diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis.
Pseudomembranous colitis is commonly associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but can be a consequence of other disease processes.
Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to C difficile is the main cause of AAD-related mortality, which more than doubled from 2002 to 2009.
(3) Clostridium difficile has long known to be the culprit for pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) and has become increasingly common in children, especially after antibiotic therapy.